23 January 2015 Temperature-dependent investigation of carrier transport, injection, and densities in AlGaAs-based multi-quantum-well active layers for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
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Abstract
The electro-optical efficiency of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) strongly depends on the efficient carrier injection into the quantum wells (QWs) in the laser active region. Carrier injection degrades with increasing temperature, which limits VCSEL performance in high-power applications where self-heating imposes high-operating temperatures. In a numerical model, we investigate the transport of charge carriers in an 808-nm AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure with special attention to the temperature dependence of carrier injection into the QWs. Experimental reference data were extracted from oxide-confined, top-emitting VCSELs. The transport simulations follow a drift-diffusion-model complemented by an energy-resolved carrier-capture model. The QW gain was calculated in the screened Hartree–Fock approximation. With the combination of the gain and transport model, we explain experimental reference data for the injection efficiency and threshold current. The degradation of the injection efficiency with increasing temperature is not only due to increased thermionic escape of carriers from the QWs, but also to state filling in the QWs initiated from higher threshold carrier densities. With a full opto-electro-thermal VCSEL model, we demonstrate how changes in VCSEL properties affecting the threshold carrier density, like mirror design or optical confinement, have consequences on the thermal behavior of the injection and the VCSEL performance.
© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Andreas P. Engelhardt, Andreas P. Engelhardt, Johanna S. Kolb, Johanna S. Kolb, Friedhard Roemer, Friedhard Roemer, Ulrich Weichmann, Ulrich Weichmann, Holger Moench, Holger Moench, Bernd Witzigmann, Bernd Witzigmann, } "Temperature-dependent investigation of carrier transport, injection, and densities in AlGaAs-based multi-quantum-well active layers for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Optical Engineering 54(1), 016107 (23 January 2015). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.54.1.016107 . Submission:
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