23 February 2016 Design and fabrication of a miniature objective consisting of high refractive index zinc sulfide lenses for laser surgery
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Abstract
A miniature laser ablation probe relying on an optical fiber to deliver light requires a high coupling efficiency objective with sufficient magnification in order to provide adequate power and field for surgery. A diffraction-limited optical design is presented that utilizes high refractive index zinc sulfide to meet specifications while reducing the miniature objective down to two lenses. The design has a hypercentric conjugate plane on the fiber side and is telecentric on the tissue end. Two versions of the objective were built on a diamond lathe—a traditional cylindrical design and a custom-tapered mount. Both received an antireflective coating. The objectives performed as designed in terms of observable resolution and field of view as measured by imaging a 1951 USAF resolution target. The slanted edge technique was used to find Strehl ratios of 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, indicating nearly diffraction-limited performance. Finally, preliminary ablation experiments indicated threshold fluence of gold film was comparable to similar reported probes.
© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Adam Shadfan, Adam Shadfan, Michal Pawlowski, Michal Pawlowski, Ye Wang, Ye Wang, Kaushik Subramanian, Kaushik Subramanian, Ilan Gabay, Ilan Gabay, Adela Ben-Yakar, Adela Ben-Yakar, Tomasz Tkaczyk, Tomasz Tkaczyk, } "Design and fabrication of a miniature objective consisting of high refractive index zinc sulfide lenses for laser surgery," Optical Engineering 55(2), 025107 (23 February 2016). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.55.2.025107 . Submission:
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