This paper presents important parameters in performance of long-range surface plasmon (LRSP) structure (SF4/PVA/silver/PMMA-DR1) that are improved. We select poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the first dielectric layer due to its water solubility and good optical properties. The thickness of PVA and silver layers is optimized by transfer matrix method based on Fresnel equations. Surface morphologies of PVA and silver surfaces are analyzed by AFM imaging due to their important role in the performance of an LRSP structure. Furthermore, the sensitivity of an all-optical switch based on plasmon is investigated. In order to compare the sensitivity of LRSP and conventional surface plasmon (SP) structures in switching mode, full wide of half maximum, resonance angles, and pump powers of both structures are measured by a custom-made optical setup based on angular interrogation with a precision of 0.01 deg. Finally, we conclude that for creating equal signal levels in both samples, the required pump power for LRSP structure was about three times less than that for conventional SP; thus, these results led to power savings in optical switches.
We have proposed and numerically investigated two plasmonic structures for bandpass and band-stop filters. The bandpass filter is composed of two metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a nonlinear rectangular nanocavity. The band-stop filter consists of an MIM waveguide side coupled to a Kerr-type nonlinear rectangular nanocavity. The optical filtering effect is verified by two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. It is demonstrated that based on optical nonlinearity we can easily make the proposed filters tunable by properly adjusting the intensity of incident light without changing the dimensions of the structures. The simulation results revealed that within the transmission spectrum, the selected central wavelength and the bandwidth of the filter can be tuned by the input signal intensity. The proposed structures are suitable to be used as highly dense integrated optical circuits, where limitations on the dimensions of the filter structure are vital.
We present the analytical solution of multiple core-shell nanoparticles using the multiple scattering theory. Plasmonic resonance from two and three core-shell nanoparticles is investigated to understand the optical properties of multiple core-shell nanoparticles. It is shown that the optical properties can be tuned either by changing the distance between core-shell nanoparticle or by changing their core-to-shell ratio. If the distance of two core-shell nanoparticle increases, the particles respond like two isolated core-shell nanoparticle, and if the distance decreases they show stronger resonance. We also demonstrate that the relative position of multiple core-shell nanoparticles plays a vital role for the enhancement of field intensity. The results provide a fast approach to analytically probe the tunable optical properties that solid single or multiple metal nanoparticles can demonstrate. We have validated our results using finite element method.
We have proposed and demonstrated numerically an ultrasmall and highly sensitive plasmonic hydrogen sensor based on an integrated microring resonator, with a footprint size as small as 4×4 μm2. With a palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt) hydrogen-sensitive layer coated on the inner surface of the microring resonator and the excitation of surface plasmon modes at the interface from the microring resonator waveguide, the device is highly sensitive to low hydrogen concentration variation, and the sensitivity is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of the optical fiber-based hydrogen sensor. We have also investigated the tradeoff between the portion coverage of the Pd/Pt layer and the sensitivity, as well as the width of the hydrogen-sensitive layer. This ultrasmall plasmonic hydrogen sensor holds promise for the realization of a highly compact sensor with integration capability for applications in hydrogen fuel economy.
We treat fundamental resonance effects in hybridized metal–dielectric elements that may find applications in absorption, sensing, and displays. The hybrid structures support guided-mode resonance (GMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) operating independently or in unison. Numerical simulations of periodic resonant films coated in gold that effectively combine principles of both resonance effects show viability of absorbers with equalized spectra and hybrid waveguides. The experimentally measured spectra show qualitative agreement with theoretical models. We introduce a hybrid GMR/SPR refractive-index sensor consisting of a thin aluminum film integrated with a subwavelength silicon-dioxide grating. The sensor operates between the Rayleigh wavelengths of the cover and the substrate. A GMR is excited by TE-polarized light and is subsequently attenuated by the Rayleigh anomaly as the cover index increases. In transverse-magnetic-polarized light, it operates as a Rayleigh sensor with sharp spectral features that would be easily monitored with a spectrum analyzer. As a final device example, we present simulation results pertaining to a one-dimensional color filter utilizing SPR, GMR, and the Rayleigh anomaly and convert it into a polarization insensitive two-dimensional device. With dual periods along orthogonal directions, two resonant peaks are induced within the visible spectrum for unpolarized input light rendering a color-mixing effect. The output color of the dual pixel is tunable with the input polarization state.
Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), widely considered to be the next generation technology for high-density data storage devices, uses a tiny plasmonic antenna called a near-field transducer (NFT) to focus light down to a subdiffraction volume. This results in a temporary and local rise in temperature of the recording medium thereby reducing its coercivity, allowing the external magnetic field to write data bits in the medium. The performance of any HAMR system strongly depends on the design of the NFT. The optical performance in terms of the optical coupling efficiency and the spot size for several different NFT designs, including the triangle antenna, E antenna, bowtie aperture, lollipop antenna, and C-aperture, are considered. Also, the corresponding temperature rise in the recording medium and the NFT is calculated and several figures of merit based on the temperature profile are compared for the different designs. This work gives a comparison of the relative performances of different types of NFT and can be a basis for choosing a suitable design for HAMR applications.
The problems related to the development of a multielement immunosensor device with the prism type of excitation of a surface plasmon resonance in the Kretschmann configuration and with the scanning of the incidence angle of monochromatic light aimed at the reliable determination of the levels of three molecular markers of the system of hemostasis (fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, and D-dimer) are considered. We have analyzed the influence of a technology for the production of a gold coating, modification of its surface, and noise effects on the enhancement of sensitivity and stability of the operation of devices. A means of oriented immobilization of monoclonal antibodies on the surface of gold using a multilayer film of copper aminopentacyanoferrate is developed. For the model proteins of studied markers, the calibrating curves (maximum sensitivity of 0.5 μg/ml) are obtained, and the level of fibrinogen in blood plasma of donors is determined. A four-channel modification of the device with an application of a reference channel for comparing the elimination of the noise of temperature fluctuations has been constructed. This device allows one to execute the express-diagnostics of prethrombotic states and the monitoring of the therapy of diseases of the blood circulation system.
A plasmonic metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.
CdS quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a phosphate glass matrix were investigated. The time-resolved Z-scan technique was used to determine the nonlinear refraction and absorption for different concentrations of CdS QDs. The results indicate that the nonlinear absorption presents a reverse saturable character, which is a desirable feature in the design of optical limiting devices. In addition, strong experimental evidence that the main contribution onto the refractive index variation is not of thermal origin was found. The observed variation presents a character similar to an electronic-like effect. These evidences are supported by numerical simulations.