Two important enabling technologies for pulsed coherent detection wind lidar are the laser and real-time signal processing. In particular, fiber laser is limited in peak power by nonlinear effects, such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). We report on various technologies that have been developed to mitigate SBS and increase peak power in 1.5-μm fiber lasers, such as special large mode area fiber designs or strain management. Range-resolved wind profiles up to a record range of 16 km within 0.1-s averaging time have been obtained thanks to those high-peak power fiber lasers. At long range, the lidar signal gets much weaker than the noise and special care is required to extract the Doppler peak from the spectral noise. To optimize real-time processing for weak carrier-to-noise ratio signal, we have studied various Doppler mean frequency estimators (MFE) and the influence of data accumulation on outliers occurrence. Five real-time MFEs (maximum, centroid, matched filter, maximum likelihood, and polynomial fit) have been compared in terms of error and processing time using lidar experimental data. MFE errors and data accumulation limits are established using a spectral method.