A uniaxial three-dimensional shape measurement system with multioperation modes for different modulation algorithms is proposed. To provide a general measurement platform that satisfies the specific measurement requirements in different application scenarios, a measuring system with multioperation modes based on modulation measuring profilometry (MMP) is presented. Unlike the previous solutions, vertical scanning by focusing control of an electronic focus (EF) lens is implemented. The projection of a grating pattern is based on a digital micromirror device, which means fast phase-shifting with high precision. A field programmable gate array-based master control center board acts as the coordinator of the MMP system; it harmonizes the workflows, such as grating projection, focusing control of the EF lens, and fringe pattern capture. Fourier transform, phase-shifting technique, and temporary Fourier transform are used for modulation analysis in different operation modes. The proposed system features focusing control, speed, programmability, compactness, and availability. This paper details the principle of MMP for multioperation modes and the design of the proposed system. The performances of different operation modes are analyzed and compared, and a work piece with steep holes is measured to verify this multimode MMP system.