Satellite remote sensing that utilizes highly accurate cloud detection is important for monitoring natural disasters. The GaoFen-4, China’s first high-resolution stationary satellite, was recently launched and acquires imagery at a spatial resolution of 50 m and a high temporal resolution (up to 10 min). An object-based cloud detection method was conducted for a time series of GaoFen-4 images. The cloudy objects were obtained from the individual images, and the outlier detection of multiple temporal objects was further processed for refinement. In the initial cloud detection, the objects were segmented by the mean-shift algorithm, and their morphological features were extracted by extended attribute profiles. The threshold-detected cloudy objects were trained according to spectral and morphological features, and the initial objects were classified as cloudy or clear by a regularized least-squares classifier. Furthermore, the medians and standard deviations of the classified cloudy and clear objects were calculated and subsequently refined by the outlier detection of multiple temporal images. The clear object features deviated more than a multiple of standard deviations from the medians of the clear objects that were classified as cloudy objects. Additionally, the refined clear objects were obtained by a similar outlier detection method. Flood event monitoring using GaoFen-4 images showed that the average overall accuracy of the initial cloud detection was 83.4% and increased to 93.3% after refinement. This object-based cloud detection method was insensitive to variations in land objects and can effectively improve cloud detection within small or thin areas, which can be helpful for the monitoring of natural disasters.