Minimum-shift keying (MSK) has the advantages of constant envelope, continuous phase, and high spectral efficiency, and it is applied in radio communication and optical fiber communication. MSK modulation of coherent detection is proposed in the ground-to-satellite laser communication system; in addition, considering the inherent noise of uplink, such as intensity scintillation and beam wander, the communication performance of the MSK modulation system with coherent detection is studied in the uplink ground-to-satellite laser. Based on the gamma–gamma channel model, the closed form of bit error rate (BER) of MSK modulation with coherent detection is derived. In weak, medium, and strong turbulence, the BER performance of the MSK modulation system is simulated and analyzed. To meet the requirements of the ground-to-satellite coherent MSK system to optimize the parameters and configuration of the transmitter and receiver, the influence of the beam divergence angle, the zenith angle, the transmitter beam radius, and the receiver diameter are studied.