A numerical simulation model for investigating modulation instability in a Raman-assisted fiber-optics system is presented and used. The modulation instability (MI) spectrum and its threshold are numerically analyzed based on this theoretical model. The different MI behaviors between forward and backward Raman pumping are studied in detail, respectively. The MI threshold in the case of forward Raman pumping is lower than that in the case of backward Raman pumping. Experiments are conducted based on the theoretical analysis, and the results agree well with the numerical calculations.