13 March 2018 Thulium fiber laser-induced vapor bubble dynamics using bare, tapered, ball, hollow steel, and muzzle brake fiber optic tips
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Abstract
This study characterizes laser-induced vapor bubble dynamics for five different distal fiber optic tip configurations, to provide insight into stone retropulsion commonly experienced during laser ablation of kidney stones. A thulium fiber laser with 1908-nm wavelength delivered 34-mJ energy per pulse at 500-μs pulse duration through five different fibers such as 100-μm-core  /  170-μm-OD bare fiber tip, 150- to 300-μm-core tapered fiber tip, 100-μm-core  /  300-μm-OD ball tip fiber, 100-μm-core  /  340-μm-OD hollow steel tip fiber, and 100-μm-core  /  560-μm-OD muzzle brake fiber tip. A high-speed camera with 10-μm-spatial and 9.5-μs-temporal resolution was used to image the vapor bubble dynamics. A needle hydrophone measured pressure transients in the forward (0 deg) and side (90 deg) directions while placed at a 6.8  ±  0.4  mm distance from the distal fiber tip. Maximum bubble dimensions (width/length) averaged 0.7/1.5, 1.0/1.6, 0.5/1.1, 0.8/1.9, and 0.7  /  1.5  mm, for bare, tapered, ball, hollow steel, and muzzle brake fiber tips, respectively (n  =  5). The hollow steel tip exhibited the most elongated vapor bubble shape, translating into increased forward pressure in this study and consistent with higher stone retropulsion in previous reports. Relative pressures (a.u.) in (forward/side) directions averaged 1.7/1.6, 2.0/2.0, 1.4/1.2, 6.8/1.1, and 0.3/1.2, for each fiber tip (n  =  5). For the hollow steel tip, forward pressure was 4  ×   higher than for the bare fiber. For the muzzle brake fiber tip, forward pressure was 5  ×   lower than the bare fiber. Bubble dimensions and pressure measurements demonstrated that the muzzle brake fiber tip reduced forward pressure by partially venting vapors through the portholes, which is consistent with the observation of lower stone retropulsion in previous reports.
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
David A. Gonzalez, David A. Gonzalez, Luke A. Hardy, Luke A. Hardy, Thomas C. Hutchens, Thomas C. Hutchens, Pierce B. Irby, Pierce B. Irby, Nathaniel M. Fried, Nathaniel M. Fried, } "Thulium fiber laser-induced vapor bubble dynamics using bare, tapered, ball, hollow steel, and muzzle brake fiber optic tips," Optical Engineering 57(3), 036106 (13 March 2018). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.57.3.036106 . Submission: Received: 13 November 2017; Accepted: 20 February 2018
Received: 13 November 2017; Accepted: 20 February 2018; Published: 13 March 2018
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