Dual-frequency solid-state microchip lasers have advantages, such as large frequency differences, high pumping efficiency, high beam quality, and narrow laser linewidth. In addition, they are characterized by simplicity, compactness, stability, long lifetime, etc. However, the frequency difference of the dual-frequency solid-state microchip laser cannot be modulated and is only determined by its internal stress. The stress distribution inside the microchip laser is uneven and the stability of the frequency difference needs to be improved furthermore, which limits its applications. The structure of a Nd:YAG laser resonator, the mechanism of dual-frequency generation, and the output characteristics are studied. The relationship between the polarization direction of the pumping laser and the intensities of the dual-frequency components is theoretically and experimentally researched, realizing the maximum amplitude of the beat signal. Based on the photoelasticity theory, the relationship between the frequency difference and the external force is analyzed and the PID closed-loop frequency difference controlling system based on the piezoelectric transducer is proposed and realized. By applying the closed-loop control, the frequency difference of the Nd:YAG laser can be continuously modulated in the range from 24 to 30 MHz and the fluctuation is less than 450 kHz. The high-performance Nd:YAG dual-frequency solid-state microchip laser with stable and adjustable frequency difference is achieved.
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