We present a system for 360-deg shape measurement based on three-dimensional (3-D) orientation target. The measurement system mainly includes a CCD camera, digital light projector, 3-D orientation target, and the measured object. The global coordinates for all chessboard corners of the target are calculated based on close-range photogrammetry, for which the relative orientation between camera stations is discussed in detail. According to the homography matrix between the checkerboard and its image plane, the position and orientation of the measuring camera relative to the target are determined. A dot-matrix structured light is designed and projected onto the measured object surface. In each image of the structured light deformed by the object shape, the pixel coordinates of the dot-centers are accurately calculated by the ellipse-fitting algorithm, and then they are all sorted in the same order by the beads-stringing matching method. In the experiment, the designated front, rear, left, and right surfaces of a reference object are measured, and their separate point clouds are automatically stitched together by the 3-D orientation target. Compared with coordinate measurement machine data, the accuracy of the system is demonstrated; the maximum deviations are +1.257 / − 0.977 mm, and the standard deviation is 0.124 mm.
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