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30 September 2019 On-axis average intensity of a hollow Gaussian beam in turbulent ocean
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On the basis of the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index fluctuations of ocean water, a propagation formula for on-axis average intensity of hollow Gaussian beams (HGBs) in oceanic turbulence is analytically obtained. Furthermore, the propagation properties of an HGB in oceanic turbulence are studied numerically in detail. The numerical results indicate that the initial beams with a higher beam order, longer blue–green wavelength, and larger waist width are helpful in mitigating the influence of turbulent ocean. Meanwhile, an HGB may propagate a much longer distance in weak oceanic turbulence by decreasing the dissipation rate of mean-square temperature and the ratio of temperature and salinity, as well as increasing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid. The simulations also verify that HGBs have more resiliency to oceanic turbulence effects than ordinary Gaussian beams. Our research is expected to provide useful guidance for understanding the propagation characteristics of structured light beams in turbulent media.

© 2019 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) 0091-3286/2019/$28.00 © 2019 SPIE
Yongxu Li, Yiping Han, and Zhiwei Cui "On-axis average intensity of a hollow Gaussian beam in turbulent ocean," Optical Engineering 58(9), 096115 (30 September 2019).
Received: 11 June 2019; Accepted: 13 September 2019; Published: 30 September 2019

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