Open Access
14 October 2023 High-speed free-space optical communication using standard fiber communication components without optical amplification
Hua-Ying Liu, Yao Zhang, Xiaoyi Liu, Luyi Sun, Pengfei Fan, Xiaohui Tian, Dong Pan, Mo Yuan, Zhijun Yin, Guilu Long, Shi-Ning Zhu, Zhenda Xie
Author Affiliations +
Table 1
Sample of performance of recent FSO systems.

Fig. 1
(a) Scheme of our FSO. (b) Picture of the 1 km experimental field. (c) Picture of the FSO devices. Alice is fixed in the building and Bob is loaded on an RCEV. (d) Diffraction loss of our FSO system. Red, diffraction loss only; blue, diffraction loss with loss of optics.

Fig. 2
(a) Design of FSO device. L, lens; IF, interference filter; DM, dichroic mirror; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; TOSA, transmitter optical subassembly module; ROSA, receiver optical subassembly module; CMOS, complementary metal oxide semiconductor; BL, beacon laser; and FSM, fast steering mirror system (i=1,2). (b) Operation schematic of the APT system for acquisition, coarse tracking (left), and fine tracking (right).

Table 2
Performance of the APT system.
Coarse-tracking mechanismTypeThree-axis motorized
Gimbal stage
Tracking rangeAzimuth: ±90  deg
Pitch: ±60  deg
(With roll fixed)
Coarse-tracking sensorTypeCMOS
FOV0.04 rad * 0.04 rad
Size and frame rate288 * 288 pixels and 1 kHz
BL0Power1 W
Wavelength940 nm
Divergence35 mrad
Fine-tracking mechanismTypeFSM
Range±212  μrad
Fine-tracking sensorTypeCMOS
FOV13 mrad * 10 mrad
Size and frame rate288 * 288 pixels and 1 kHz
BL1Power5 mW
Wavelength638 nm and 660 nm
Divergence6 mrad
BL2Power5 mW
Wavelength808 nm and 852 nm
Divergence6 mrad

Fig. 3
Performance of the APT system measured with 1 km separation. (a) Coarse tracking error. (b) Fine tracking error.

Fig. 4
(a) Link loss for 1 km FSO. (b) Picture of the optical transceiver modules. (c) Communication bandwidth measurement for the module test and FSO. Red, direct connection test; blue, 1 km FSO test.

Fig. 5
Link loss for 4 km FSO.

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Free space optics

Free space optical communications


Optical tracking

Laser soldering



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