In the context of the Laue project devoted to build a Laue lens prototype for focusing celestial hard x-/soft gamma-rays, a Laue lens made of bent crystal tiles, with 20-m focal length, is simulated. The focusing energy passband is assumed to be 90 to 600 keV. The distortion of the image produced by the lens on the focal plane, due to effects of crystal tile misalignment and radial distortion of the crystal curvature, is investigated. The corresponding effective area of the lens, its point spread function, and sensitivity are calculated and compared with those exhibited by a nominal Laue lens with no misalignment and/or distortion. Such analysis is crucial to estimate the optical properties of a real lens, in which the investigated shortcomings could be present.
Spacecraft thermal model validation is normally performed by comparing model predictions with thermal test data and reducing their discrepancies to meet the mission requirements. Based on thermal engineering expertise, the model input parameters are adjusted to tune the model output response to the test data. The end result is not guaranteed to be the best solution in terms of reduced discrepancy and the process requires months to complete. A model-based methodology was developed to perform the validation process in a fully automated fashion and provide mathematical bases to the search for the optimal parameter set that minimizes the discrepancies between model and data. The methodology was successfully applied to several thermal subsystems of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Global or quasiglobal optimal solutions were found and the total execution time of the model validation process was reduced to about two weeks. The model sensitivities to the parameters, which are required to solve the optimization problem, can be calculated automatically before the test begins and provide a library for sensitivity studies. This methodology represents a crucial commodity when testing complex, large-scale systems under time and budget constraints. Here, results for the JWST Core thermal system will be presented in detail.
Modern ground-based telescopes rely on adaptive optics (AO) systems for the compensation of image degradation caused by atmospheric turbulences. Within an AO system, measurements of incoming light from guide stars are used to adjust deformable mirror(s) in real time that correct for atmospheric distortions. The incoming wavefront has to be derived from sensor measurements, and this intermediate result is then translated into the shape(s) of the deformable mirror(s). Rapid changes of the atmosphere lead to the need for fast wavefront reconstruction algorithms. We review a fast matrix-free algorithm that was developed by Neubauer to reconstruct the incoming wavefront from Shack–Hartmann measurements based on a finite element discretization of the telescope aperture. The method is enhanced by a domain decomposition ansatz. We show that this algorithm reaches the quality of standard approaches in end-to-end simulation while at the same time maintaining the speed of recently introduced solvers with linear order speed.