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10 October 2016 Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution
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The purpose of this work was to develop a clinically viable laparoscopic augmented reality (AR) system employing stereoscopic (3-D) vision, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to achieve image registration. We investigated clinically feasible solutions to mount the EM sensors on the 3-D laparoscope and the LUS probe. This led to a solution of integrating an externally attached EM sensor near the imaging tip of the LUS probe, only slightly increasing the overall diameter of the probe. Likewise, a solution for mounting an EM sensor on the handle of the 3-D laparoscope was proposed. The spatial image-to-video registration accuracy of the AR system was measured to be 2.59±0.58  mm and 2.43±0.48  mm for the left- and right-eye channels, respectively. The AR system contributed 58-ms latency to stereoscopic visualization. We further performed an animal experiment to demonstrate the use of the system as a visualization approach for laparoscopic procedures. In conclusion, we have developed an integrated, compact, and EM tracking-based stereoscopic AR visualization system, which has the potential for clinical use. The system has been demonstrated to achieve clinically acceptable accuracy and latency. This work is a critical step toward clinical translation of AR visualization for laparoscopic procedures.
Xinyang Liu, Sukryool Kang, William Plishker, George Zaki, Timothy D. Kane, and Raj Shekhar "Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution," Journal of Medical Imaging 3(4), 045001 (10 October 2016).
Published: 10 October 2016

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