Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is primarily managed by surgical cancer resection. Recurrence rates after surgery can be as high as 55%, if residual cancer is present. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is evaluated for detection of SCC in ex-vivo surgical specimens. Several machine learning methods are investigated, including convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and a spectral–spatial classification framework based on support vector machines. Quantitative results demonstrate that additional data preprocessing and unsupervised segmentation can improve CNN results to achieve optimal performance. The methods are trained in two paradigms, with and without specular glare. Classifying regions that include specular glare degrade the overall results, but the combination of the CNN probability maps and unsupervised segmentation using a majority voting method produces an area under the curve value of 0.81 [0.80, 0.83]. As the wavelengths of light used in HSI can penetrate different depths into biological tissue, cancer margins may change with depth and create uncertainty in the ground truth. Through serial histological sectioning, the variance in the cancer margin with depth is investigated and paired with qualitative classification heat maps using the methods proposed for the testing group of SCC patients. The results determined that the validity of the top section alone as the ground truth may be limited to 1 to 2 mm. The study of specular glare and margin variation provided better understanding of the potential of HSI for the use in the operating room.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither SPIE nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the SPIE website.