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23 August 2019 Extreme UV secondary electron yield measurements of Ru, Sn, and Hf oxide thin films
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Background: The secondary electron yield (SEY) of materials is important for topics as nanoparticle photoresists and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics contamination.

Aim: Experimentally measure SEY and secondary electron energy distributions for Ru, Sn, and Hf oxide.

Approach: The SEY and energy distribution resulting from 65 to 112 eV EUV radiation are measured for thin-film oxides or films with native oxide.

Results: The total SEY can be explained by EUV absorption in the topmost nanometer of (native) oxide of the investigated materials.

Conclusions: Although the relative SEY of Ru and Sn is well-explained by the difference in EUV absorption properties, the SEY of HfO2 is almost a factor 2 higher than expected. Based on the energy distribution of secondary electrons, this may be related to a lower barrier for secondary electron emission.

Jacobus M. Sturm, Feng Liu, Erik Darlatt, Michael Kolbe, Antonius A. I. Aarnink, Christopher J. Lee, and Fred Bijkerk "Extreme UV secondary electron yield measurements of Ru, Sn, and Hf oxide thin films," Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 18(3), 033501 (23 August 2019).
Received: 16 May 2019; Accepted: 1 August 2019; Published: 23 August 2019

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