1 April 2010 Controlling electromagnetic metamaterials
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The last two decades have been witness to two exciting and independent developments that have forever changed our conventional view of how light interacts with matter. One relates to coherent control via quantum interference, wherein the possibility of making an otherwise opaque medium transparent [1], now known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), set off intense research activity. EIT essentially requires careful creation of atomic coherence, that results in diverse effects varying from almost freezing light in its tracks (slow light) to freezing atoms to nanoKelvin temperatures via velocity-selective coherent population trapping. The second development relates to metamaterials whose origins are very classical in nature. In electromagnetics, these designer materials were originally proposed for realizing a super-lens wherein the evanescent field becomes the work horse that accords sub-wavelength resolution in imaging [2]. Since then a variety of metamaterials have been proposed, where even the propagating fields can be dramatically controlled, as in electromagnetic cloaks wherein the fields are maneuvered around an obstacle so as to make it invisible. The biggest technological contraints in realizing large-scale device applications of metamaterials have been two. The first is the large dissipation associated with an inherently resonant phenomenon. The second arises due to the very design of metamaterial; once the metamaterial structures (inclusions) are fabricated, they offer little maneuverability in terms of the operating frequency.
Harshawardhan Wanare, "Controlling electromagnetic metamaterials," Journal of Nanophotonics 4(1), 040304 (1 April 2010). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3430109 . Submission:

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