Optical Engineering

Editor-in-Chief: Michael T. Eismann, Air Force Research Laboratory, USA

Optical Engineering publishes peer-reviewed articles reporting on research, development, and applications of optics and photonics.

 

Call for Papers
How to Submit to a Special Section

To submit a manuscript for consideration in a special section, please prepare the manuscript according to the journal guidelines and use the Online Submission SystemLeaving site. A cover letter indicating that the submission is intended for this special section should be included with the paper. Papers will be peer‐reviewed in accordance with the journal's established policies and procedures. Authors have the choice to publish with open access.

3D Printing and Manufacturing
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 5 October 2017
Guest Editors
Henry Helvajian

Physical Sciences Laboratories
The Aerospace Corporation
El Segundo, California, United States
E-mail: Henry.Helvajian@aero.org

Bo Gu

BOS Photonics
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
E-mail: B.Gu@comcast.net

Scope

The field of 3D printing and its industrial namesake of 3D-or additive-manufacturing has been a growing technology with significant worldwide commercial backing. The promise is the development of a manufacturing approach that will revolutionize the way objects and complex systems can be fabricated and/or assembled. It is a step toward the "digitization of matter" and the layer-by-layer building approach which together open the design space where material type and phase can be varied as needed, where small (nano-micro scale) devices can be selectively inserted as necessary, and where complex shapes, replete with integrated sensors, can be realized. The latter goal would be the most soaring of visions, where a 3D manufactured product would not only have the necessary complex shape, but also include properties for "sensing" the local environment, harvesting energy, and "communicating" its state. We are far from realizing this soaring vision, but recent strides in fields such as materials development and controlled process tooling brings hope that 3D manufacturing could impact the world much like the industrial and electronics revolutions. It is currently at an embryonic stage with utility in fabricating prototypes on demand. For on-demand printing or 3D printing to transition to the manufacturing domain, it is necessary that issues of reliability and reproducibility be addressed and this is only possible by the development of metrology tools that can characterize the process and follow the fabrication of the object in situ. Optical techniques and/or laser-induced effects offer the best opportunity for the development of in situ nonintrusive sensors for characterization and/or process control. For example, sensors for measuring the local build temperature, surface roughness, and/or grain size of the fabricated object, or techniques for precisely measuring the placement of a micro/nanoscale object can be envisioned. Also, sensors for measuring the properties of the precursor matter, powder size and local density, polymer viscosity.

This special section is seeking high-quality journal articles describing recent work on the design, analysis, simulations, and experimental results involving any and all aspects of optical engineering and spectroscopy techniques that can be configured to operate within a 3D printing tool, whether it be laser based, electron-beam based, extrusion based or just a high-speed pick-and-place machine. One major criterion for acceptance is that the approach must be scalable to the speeds and dimensions of existing commercially available 3D manufacturing tools and those envisioned in the future. We seek technologies or approaches that will enable process characterization, process verification, and/or process control, with the hope that sufficient information, captured quickly, would enable the implementation of a "repair" process (i.e., defect repair) during a build. Particular topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Optical engineering and spectroscopy techniques in 3D printing manufacturing
    • Design of optical engineering systems in 3D printing manufacturing
    • Modeling, simulation, analysis of optical and spectroscopic systems in 3D printing manufacturing
    • Scale-up and overcoming product throughput barriers
  • Process development, characterization, verification, and/or process control for additive manufacturing
    • In situ nonintrusive sensors for 3D printing technology measuring local build temperature, surface roughness, grain size of the fabricated object, placement at micro/nanoscale, properties of the precursor matter, powder size and local density, and polymer viscosity.
  • Metrology tools for reliability and reproducibility for 3D printing manufacturing
  • Laser-induced phase transformations to realize specific material properties
  • Development of metrology standards and structure validation.

This call for papers is open to everyone, and participants in the 3-D Printing Virtual Symposium at Photonics West are especially encouraged to submit a revised and expanded paper for consideration. SPIE publication policy permits submission of journal papers based on proceedings papers. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.

3D Printing and Manufacturing
Light Field and Holographic Displays: New Trends in 3-D Imaging and Visualization
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 31 October 2017
Guest Editors
Jung-Young Son

Konyang University
Biomedical Engineering Department
Nonsan, Chungnam, Korea
E-mail: jyson@konyang.ac.kr

Michael T. Eismann

Air Force Research Laboratory
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
E-mail: michael.eismann@us.af.mil

Sumio Yano

Shimane University
Department of Mechanical, Electrical, and Electronic Engineering
Matsue, Shimane, Japan
E-mail: yano@ecs.shimane-u.ac.jp

Jose Manuel Rodrigues Ramos

La Laguna University
Industrial Engineering Department
La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
E-mail: jmramos@ull.es

Yi-Pei Huang

National Chiao-Tung University
Department of Photonics
Hsinchu, Taiwan 300, ROC
E-mail: boundshuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw

Scope

Three dimensional (3-D) imaging technology has a long development history, but still has not transitioned into the commercial market. The primary reason is that the quality of 3-D image displays is still inferior to that of the conventional 2-D displays. The ever-increasing size and resolution of flat-panel displays makes it difficult for 3-D imaging to compete in terms of image quality. The main characteristic of 3-D imaging considered to overcome fundamental limitations of 2-D displays is the sense of depth, which is the natural characteristic of the images perceived by humans from our surroundings. While this is theoretically true, large flat-panel displays are considered to provide this sense of depth psychologically. For this reason, current 3-D imaging research and development concentrates on how to provide a natural depth sense that does not induce any discomfort in viewing and cannot be acquired with the plane image. In this regard, electro-holographic imaging based on digital display chips/panels and super-multiview 3-D displays represented by light-field imaging are becoming the major research topics in current 3-D imaging along with high-density display chips/panels for the displays. Light-field imaging also requires new image acquisition and generation methods to meet the super-multiview condition and verify its visual characteristics to viewers. We invite contributions for this special section of Optical Engineering in the following areas of light field and holographic displays, related technologies to build the displays, and other emerging 3-D display technologies:

  • Light-field and electro-holographic displays and display architectures
  • Image acquisition and generation methods for light field imaging
  • New algorithms for electro-holographic imaging
  • Display chips/panels for the electro-holographic and light field displays
  • Factors defining image quality of light-field and electro-holographic imaging
  • Visual characteristics of the light-field and electro-holographic images
  • Hologram printing technologies and architectures
  • 3-D visualization based on super-multiview images
  • Other emerging 3-D display technologies.

This call for papers is open for everyone. Participants in the 2017 conference on Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Displays in Anaheim are especially encouraged to submit a revised and expanded paper for consideration. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net.

Light Field and Holographic Displays
Self-Mixing Interferometry for Industrial Applications
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 1 November 2017
Guest Editors
Silvano Donati

DIII University of Pavia
Pavia, Italy
E-mail: silvano.donati@unipv.it

Michele Norgia

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria
Politecnico di Milano
Milano, Italy
E-mail: michele.norgia@polimi.it

Scope

Self-mixing interferometry (SMI) has grown up to the point of a new undisputed tool of general applicability to a number of areas, like metrology, industry, biology, consumer and homeland security, just to cite the most important, because of the unique advantages of high performance, small size, minimum part-count, and affordable price. This special section will be focused on the progress of SMI in the field probably most developed to date, that is, industrial applications.

Original papers are solicited on the following subjects (but not restricted to):

SMI for machine tool positioning:

  • displacement measurements
  • vibration measurements
  • angle positioning
  • angular error (yaw, pitch and roll) measurements

SMI dimensional measurements:

  • distance (absolute) measurements
  • angular velocity measurements
  • thickness measurements
  • 3D scanning
  • in-process dimensional measurement
  • presence detectors
  • SMI and sensor fusion

SMI for material and device property characterization:

  • elasticity measurement
  • mechanical hysteresis cycle measurements
  • electro-mechanical frequency response
  • modal analysis
  • creep and premature failure detection
  • thermal expansion measurements
  • surface roughness measurements

SMI in particulate detectors and analyzers
SMI for flow measurements in liquids and gases
New methods for improving SMI performances:

  • dual channel (FM and AM) operation
  • FM-to-AM conversion

New methods for mitigating adverse effects, e.g.:

  • speckle pattern statistics
  • turbulence effects
  • polarization drifts
  • higher-C regime and trespassing to chaos

Comparing performances of SMI with different laser options:

  • Distributed feedback (DFB) versus Fabry-Perot lasers
  • He-Ne versus semiconductor lasers
  • crystal and solid-state laser versus semiconductor lasers

All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net.

Photon Counting Technology
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 1 October 2017
Guest Editors
Majeed Hayat

University of New Mexico
Department of ECE
Albuquerque, New Mexico
E-mail: hayat@unm.edu

Gerald Buller

Heriot Watt University
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
E-mail: G.S.Buller@hw.ac.uk

Scope

This special section of Optical Engineering invites insightful review and new research papers on the principles and applications of photon counting. The scope encompasses all aspects of photon counting technology, including all aspects of photon-counting detection and data acquisition, as well as some of the emerging application areas of single-photon counting ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Topics include:

  • Single-photon detectors, including all semiconductor and superconducting approaches
  • Studies of very high gain avalanche photodiodes close to single-photon detection level
  • Novel single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and arrays
  • High functionality Si CMOS single-photon detectors and arrays
  • Novel reconfigurable and multifunctional readout circuit (ROIC) concepts for photon-counting arrays
  • New single-photon data acquisition approaches, particularly for high data rate and/or low jitter
  • Single-photon technology used for depth imaging and LIDAR
  • Photon counting technologies for florescence sensing
  • Photon counting in quantum technology applications, for example quantum-enhanced sensing, quantum communications, and quantum information processing.

This call for papers is open to everyone, and participants of the 2017 conference on Advanced Photon Counting Techniques, part of Defense and Commercial Sensing in Anaheim, California, are invited to submit results presented at the conference. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net.

Digital Image Correlation
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 1 November 2017
Guest Editors
Jayant Sirohi

The University of Texas at Austin
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Austin, Texas 78712
E-mail: jayant.sirohi@mail.utexas.edu

K. Ravi-Chandar

The University of Texas at Austin
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Austin, Texas 78712
E-mail: ravi@utexas.edu

Scope

Digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved from a specialized laboratory procedure to a relatively standard technique for measurement of strain or deformation in experimental solid mechanics. At the same time, numerous other applications of DIC have evolved in a variety of other fields. These applications encompass a large range of spatial scales, from micro-DIC to exploration of geological features, and a large range of temporal scales, from impact studies to creeping flow measurements. The theoretical basis and algorithms behind DIC are well known and can be found in the published literature. This special section seeks journal-quality papers describing nonconventional applications of DIC. The focus should be on the experimental setups, novel algorithms, and final goals of the application. Examples of topics of interest include:

  • Rotating structures such as wind turbine blades and helicopter rotors
  • Imaging of biological structures and tissues
  • Glacial/creeping flows and geological features
  • Cell locomotion
  • Transient deformation due to impacts/explosions
  • Parachute/sail shape reconstruction.

This call for papers is open to everyone. SPIE publication policy permits submission of journal papers based on proceedings papers. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.

Advances in Optical Design
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 1 November 2017
Guest Editors
Peter Clark

Optikos Corporation
Wakefield, Massachusetts
E-mail: pclark@optikos.com

Julius Muschaweck

Arnold & Richter Cine Technik GmbH & Co.
Betriebs KG
Munich, Germany
E-mail: JMuschaweck@arri.de

Richard Pfisterer

Photon Engineering, LLC
Tucson, Arizona
E-mail: richp@photonengr.com

John Rogers

Synopsys, Inc.
Pasadena, California
E-mail: jrogers@synopsys.com

Scope

This special section of Optical Engineering invites participants of the 2017 International Optical Design Conference (IODC) to publish their presented research in a peer-reviewed journal; research may also include materials not presented at IODC. Topics include:

  • Aberration theory
  • Beam shaping and propagation
  • Computational imaging
  • Design for fabrication/tolerancing
  • Diffractive optics
  • Freeform imaging and nonimaging design
  • GRIN optics
  • Illumination design
  • Metrology/manufacturing
  • Microscopy/lithography
  • Nonimaging optical design techniques
  • Optics for medical and biological applications
  • Optimization
  • Photography
  • Telescopes and space optics.

This call for papers is open to all participants of the 2017 International Optical Design Conference held in Denver, Colorado, 9-13 July 2017. It is also open to those who did not attend the conference but have relevant and related work. All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author. Submissions should follow the guidelines of Optical Engineering. Manuscripts should be submitted online at https://oe.msubmit.net.

Previously Published Special Sections

Solid-State Lasers (February 2018)
Guest Editors: Patrick Berry, Jonathan Evans, and Brian Dolasinski

Quantum and Interband Cascade Lasers with Applications (January 2018)
Guest Editors: Jerry R. Meyer, Igor Vurgaftman, and Gerard Wysocki

Plasmonic Systems and Applications (December 2017)
Guest Editors: Monica Allen, Jeffery Allen, Daniel Wasserman, G. V. Pavan Kumar, and Stefan Maier

Interferometry (November 2017)
Guest Editors: Peter de Groot and Erik Novak

Infrared Sensors (September 2017)
Guest Editors: Arvind D'Souza and Paul D. LeVan

Imaging Spectrometry (August 2017)
Guest Editors: John F. Silny, Emmett J. Ientilucci, Joseph Meola, and Thomas Chrien

Long-Range Imaging (July 2017)
Guest Editors: Daniel LeMaster, Szymon Gladysz, Andrew Lambert, and Michael Hart

Wearable Vision Systems (May 2017)
Guest Editors: Darrel G. Hopper, James E. Melzer, Michael Browne, and Peter Marasco

Optical Computational Imaging (April 2017)
Guest Editors: Abhijit Mahalonobis, Amit Ashok, and Lei Tian

Active Electro-Optical Sensing: Phenomenology, Technology, and Applications (March 2017)
Guest Editors: Paul F. McManamon, Walter F. Buell, Gary Kamerman, Ove Steinvall, and Kazuhiro Asai

Optical Refrigeration and Radiation-Balanced Lasers (January 2017)
Guest Editors: Richard Epstein and Mansoor Sheik-Bahae

Laser Damage III (January 2017)
Guest Editors: Vitaly Gruzdev and Michelle D. Shinn

Speckle-Based Metrology (December 2016)
Guest Editors: Fernando Mendoza Santoyo, Marc Georges, Peter Lehmann, Wolfgang Osten, and Armando Albertazzi G., Jr.

Free-Space Laser Communication (November 2016)
Guest Editor: Hamid Hemmati

Instrumentation and Techniques for Geometrical and Mechanical Quantity Measurement (September 2016)
Guest Editors: Liandong Yu, Peter Ott, Lian Qing Zhu, Ben Yong Chen, and Lian Xiang Yang

2-D Materials for Optics and Photonics (August 2016)
Guest Editors: Han Zhang, Edmund Kelleher, and Juejun Hu.

Freeform Optics (July 2016)
Guest Editors: Oliver Fähnle, Ray Williamson, and Dae Wook Kim

Microwave Photonics: Deep Interactions between Microwaves and Lightwaves (March 2016)
Guest Editors: Xihua Zou, Attila Szep, and Chao Wang

Structural Health Monitoring: Use of Guided Waves and/or Nonlinear Acoustic Techniques (January 2016)
Guest Editors: Tribikram Kundu, Francesco Lanza di Scalea, and Hoon Sohn

Complex Light (November 2015)
Guest Editors: David L. Andrews, Enrique J. Galvez, and Jesper Glückstad

Digital Photoelasticity: Advancements and Applications (August 2015)
Guest Editor: Krishnamurthi Ramesh

Computational Approaches to Imaging LADAR (March 2015)
Guest Editors: David Rabb and Joseph Marron

Fiber Lasers and Applications (January 2015)
Guest Editors: Zeev Zalevsky, Abraham Katzir, and Yoav Sintov

Optical Frequency Combs (December 2014)
Guest Editors: Vladimir Ilchenko and Zhaohui Li

Laser Damage II (December 2014)
Guest Editors: Vitaly Gruzdev and Michelle D. Shinn

Advances of Precision Optical Measurements and Instrumentation for Geometrical and Mechanical Quantities (December 2014)
Guest Editors: Lian Dong Yu, Ben Yong Chen, and Lianxiang Yang

Practical Holography: New Procedures, Materials, and Applications (November 2014)
Guest Editors: A.R. Ganesan and Pietro Ferraro

High-Speed 3-D Optical Metrology and Applications (November 2014)
Guest Editors: Song Zhang, Rongguang Liang, and Lianxiang Yang

Slow and Fast Light (October 2014)
Guest Editors: Selim Shahriar and Jacob Scheuer

Machine Vision: Processing, Components, and Systems (October 2014)
Guest Editors: Richard Kleihorst and Hideo Saito

Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Metrology (September 2014)
Guest Editors: Daniel Malacara-Hernández, Joanna Schmit, and Sven Schröder

Single-Photon Detection, Generation, and Applications (August 2014)
Guest Editors: Alex McIntosh and Mark Itzler

Glass Photonics for Integrated Optics (July 2014)
Guest Editors: Maurizio Ferrari and Stefano Taccheo

Human Vision (June 2014)
Guest Editors: Eli Peli, Joyce Farrell, Stephen Burns, and Susana Marcos

Laser Sensing and Imaging (June 2014)
Guest Editors: Chunqing Gao and Dingyuan Tang

Ocean Optics (May 2014)
Guest Editor: Weilin Hou

Ultrashort Pulsed Laser and Applications Engineering (May 2014)
Guest Editors: Marcos Dantus and Gerald C. Manke II

Terahertz Physics and Applications (March 2014)
Guest Editors: Mehdi Anwar, Joseph S. Melinger, Ekmel Ozbay, and Masayoshi Tonouchi

Freeform Optics (March 2014)
Guest Editors: Groot Gregory, Craig Olson, and Florian Fournier

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Explosive Sensing (February 2014)
Guest Editor: Augustus W. Fountain III

Optical and Hybrid Imaging and Processing for Big Data Problems (January 2014)
Guest Editors: Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Abdul A. S. Awwal, S. Susan Young, and Ghaleb M. Abdulla

Gradient-Index Optics (November 2013)
Guest Editors: Predrag Milojkovic, Stefanie Tompkins, and Ravindra Athale

High Dynamic Range Imaging (October 2013)
Guest Editors: Touradj Ebrahimi and Andrew G. Tescher

Speckle Metrology (October 2013)
Guest Editors: Ángel F. Doval, Cristina Trillo, and José Carlos López Vázquez

Space Telescopes II (September 2013)
Guest Editors: Jim Oschmann, Mark Clampin, and Howard MacEwen

Diffractive Optics and Nanophotonics (September 2013)
Guest Editor: Chunlei Du

Ground-Based/Airborne Telescopes and Instrumentation (August 2013)
Guest Editor: Helen Hall

Aero-Optics and Adaptive Optics for Aero-Optics (July 2013)
Guest Editor: Eric J. Jumper

Video Compression Technology (July 2013)
Guest Editors: Ofer Hadar and Dan Grois

Infrared Systems (June 2013)
Guest Editors: Michael Eismann and Phil Perconti

Optical Materials (May 2013)
Guest Editor: Ishwar D. Aggarwal

Target Search and Detection Modeling (April 2013)
Guest Editors: Piet Bijl, Tana Maurer, David Wilson

High-Energy Laser Systems and Components (February 2013)
Guest Editor: John R. Albertine

Laser Damage (December 2012)
Guest Editors: Vitaly E. Gruzdev and Michelle D. Shinn

Hyperspectral Imaging Systems (November 2012)
Guest Editors: John N. Lee and Christoher G. Simi

Imaging Through the Atmosphere (October 2012)
Guest Editor: Giesele Bennett

Terahertz and Millimeter Wave Imaging (September 2012)
Guest Editors: Eddie Jacobs, Roger Appleby, and Dennis Prather

Precision Optical Measurements and Instrumentation for Geometrical and Mechanical Quantities (August 2012)
Guest Editors: Kuang-Chao Fan, Rong-Sheng Lu, and Lian-Xiang Yang

Computational Imaging (July 2012)
Guest Editors: David J. Brady and Robert Gibbons

Active Imaging: Concepts, Components, and Application (June 2012)
Guest Editor: Edward A. Watson

Free-Space Laser Communications (March 2012)
Guest Editor: Hamid Hemmati

3-D and 4-D Imaging Techniques and Applications (February 2012)
Guest Editors: G. Charmaine Gilbreath and Lenny Lipton

Space Telescopes (January 2012)
Guest Editors: Mark Clampin and Kathryn A. Flanagan

Optical Design (December 2011)
Guest Editors: G. Groot Gregory and Bryan Stone

Fiber Lasers (November 2011)
Guest Editor: Dahv Kliner

Advances of Optical Metrology in the Transportation Industry (October 2011)
Guest Editors: Lianxiang Yang and Andreas Ettemeyer

Digital Holography and Holographic Displays (September 2011)
Guest Editor: Hans I. Bjelkhagen

Liquid Crystals for Photonics (August 2011)
Guest Editor: Ignacio Moreno

Integrated Optics (July 2011)
Guest Editor: Giancarlo C. Righini

Infrared Detectors (June 2011)
Guest Editors: Paul Norton and Mel Kruer

Quantum and Interband Cascade Lasers (November 2010)
Guest Editors: Jerry Meyer and Igor Vurgaftman

Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Laser (September 2010)
Guest Editors: Gregory J. Quarles and Yehoshua Kalisky

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