This paper discusses the Engineering and Scientific aspects of a spacecraft television system designed to perform preliminary topographic reconnaissance of portions of the surface of Mars. It consists of a single camera shuttered system utilizing a specially developed slow scan vidicon. Engineering mechanization will be discussed in terms of the mission con straints and desired scientific results. Test and calibration techniques will be discussed and typical system performance capabilities illustrated.
The primary purpose of the paper is to introduce an exposure determination method through which the tone reproduction system is standardized and also simplified. Using this method, the photographer is able to: a. Work toward a predetermined result by visualizing the brightness in the scene that is to be recorded as particular tonalities in the print, and to keep the respective densities in the negative within a range that does not exceed the effective exposure range of print-out media. b. Communicate specific processing information to the film processor on a numerical basis which will produce a negative that will print as pre-visualized. c. Compare directly low, medium and high contrast films as to speed and useful exposure range. The paper also includes an up-to-date review of the contributions made involving the parameters of the photographic reproduction system.
Ballistic Camera techniques have assumed so many variations that the common denominator is not widely recognized throughout the discipline of photo-optical instrumentation. A blending by creative minds of the precise methods of positional astronomy, photogrammetry and geophysics with the best in optomechanical, electronics, mechanical and photographic components and data reduction facility now presents a powerful tool for use in scientific research. Current capabilities, limitations and prospects are reviewed.
The characteristics of optical systems for the projection of light scattering transparency materials are reviewed in conjunction with the characteristics of systems for the projection of light absorbing transparency image materials. Typical projection systems for both types of transparent materials including system parameters and contrast relationships are described.
Limited space and all weather working conditions are requiring the Pascagoula Fisheries Station of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to design a special line of underwater photographic instrumentation systems. Light metals and plastics are being explored in a continuing effort to develop lightweight yet strong and corrosion proof underwater housings. Designs are selected which offer maximum protection from accidental con tact with the sea bottom and the ship's hull. Color is used to enhance or subdue the underwater visibility of both photographic and test gear.