This paper reviews the accomplishment of modern day cameras in space on the MERCURY Program. It follows with the requirements of the GEMINI and APOLLO Programs. The need for the creation of a special purpose camera for use in space is outlined. The creation of such a camera is one of the technological goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis-tration. Approximately one-third of the scientific data gathered in the lunar mis-sion will be recorded on film. The space camera must be lightweight and easy to handle even though the user is wearing a spacesuit which restricts mobility.
The feasibility of TV in satellites and space probes has been demonstrated in 8 TIROS vehicles. Other usages are discussed including other weather observational satellites, space astronomy for stellar and solar measurements, uses in manned and unmanned lunar missions, and biological observations. Solutions to problems pertaining to the space environment and and the design choices in using vidicons for remote instrumentation are discussed. The direction of anticipated growth and development are outlined.
A program to develop a laser rangefinder for improved trajectory determination is in progress at the U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station. The range-finder is to record range at a rate of ten times per second and do so with a precision of plus or minus one ft. The improvement to be expected has been investigated for representative situations using a mathematical model and computer. An appendix is included giving a derivation of the range equation.
The mission restraints on a planetary orbital reconnaissance mission will be discussed with particular consideration given to a Mars Voyager type vehicle in the late 60's - early 70's. The mission restraints will then be used to compare two possible systems that can be used: a TV-tape recorder combination, and a photographic system. The problems particular to a photographic system will be expanded upon and the methods to be used in their solution elucidated. Particular among these problems are those associated with the film processing and the protection of the film and developer during the long Earth-Mars transit time. Under investigation is a web type processing machine that has special features to help solve this problem. The machine design will be discussed and some results presented. Discussion of necessary further improvements of this device and development of the other necessary system components may be included if time permits.