I think that it is probably the same thing everywhere, in North America at least. Most of those involved in training of highly qualiﬁed personnel very often receive requests for young specialists with excellent skills in optical sys-tem design. This is the most difﬁcult request to respond to. If we look at the way teaching is arranged in our universities, there are well-recognized ﬁelds in optics in the same way that there are well-organized areas in physics, chemistry, etc. Having well-organized areas in sciences means that all scientists converge toward the most popular and newly addressed aspects of problems. This is very nice. It attracts new heads in our ﬁeld, but also permits elimination of heads from certain areas they may have chosen to enter before being exposed to some kind of publicity. Very often, supposedly well-thinking professors will say very discouraging remarks about a colleague who is doing a good and very professional job, but who is doing ‘‘old’’ physics or optics according to their standards.