Continued improvement in the performance, both brightness and diameter control, of the spot of the annotator (CRT) has made precision under-exposure unnecessary in order to maintain the proper dot-geometry on the negative. The requirement that not only the negative, but also the positive, be machine-readable has required a reconsideration of the analytical expression for the density-exposure characteristics of various films. A new model of this characteristic is presented. This model is accurate from very low densities to densities well above the point of inflection, and has been used to calculate exposure times, maximum density attainable, and dot-profiles with accuracy sufficient for annotator systems engineering purposes.
A major function of the photographic instrumentation engineer is to reduce phenomena to numbers, so he can measure, analyze, and manipulate. Photographic materials, e.g., films and papers, are part of his instrumentation. The purpose of this paper is to help the engineer, and others, understand that numbers can be assigned to characteristics of photographic materials, and what worth such numbers can have. The numbers discussed are those associated with sensitometry (speed, contrast, gamma, latitude) and especially those associated with image structure (RMS granularity, and modulation transfer function). Both color and black-and-white films are considered.
The Spectral Ballistic Camera instrument (slitless spectrographs for nighttime use) provide relative intensity data as a function of wavelength, and scintillation analysis information on various missiles and other emissive body trajectories. Problems encountered when recording low-light-level emissions, calibration of off-axis imagery, optimum recording emulsions, development techniques, reduction of data, and timing correlations are currently being investigated. The instruments are presently confined to recording trajectory and spectra on relatively wide-field cameras that are directed toward the areas of interest. Transmission gratings mounted before the lens are aligned on the cameras so that the direction of spectral dispersion is perpendicular to the predicted motion on the trajectory.
The evolution and development of two moving window displays and their integrated rapid access film processors is described and discussed in the context of the present status and future requirements for Multi-sensors Tactical Reconnaissance Systems.
Camera control systems, stabilized mounts, navigational computers and related photo-optical control systems can produce high levels of electro-magnetic interference from pulse circuits, switches and relays. In military applications such interference must be controlled carefully. This paper considers the problem in terms of current military specifications for measurement and acceptable limits. It covers methods of noise suppression and describes the development of a postage-stamp size resistance capacitance filter for high attenuation of conducted and radiated interference.