Editorial
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 050101 (12 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.050101
TOPICS: Electro-optical engineering, Optical engineering, Electrical engineering, Infrared imaging, Infrared radiation, Heart
OE Letters
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 050501 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.050501
TOPICS: Laser imaging, Calibration, Projection systems, Distortion, Cameras, Detection and tracking algorithms, Electrical engineering, Nonlinear optics, Illumination engineering, Structured light
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 050502 (20 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.050502
TOPICS: Fiber Bragg gratings, Brain-machine interfaces, Sensors, Temperature metrology, Single mode fibers, Fiber optics sensors, Cladding, Refractive index, Structured optical fibers, Head
Special Section on Ocean Optics
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051401 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051401
TOPICS: Ocean optics, LIDAR, Sensors, Atmospheric modeling, Monte Carlo methods, Signal detection, Water, Analytical research, Scattering, Absorption
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051402 (2 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051402
TOPICS: Satellites, Algorithm development, Water, MODIS, Optical engineering, Satellite imaging, Ocean optics, Interfaces, Antennas, Standards development
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051403 (3 January 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051403
TOPICS: Modulation, Receivers, Imaging systems, Signal attenuation, Laser imaging, Laser systems engineering, Pulsed laser operation, Transmitters, Laser scattering, Signal to noise ratio
Robert Lee, Alan Laux, Linda Mullen
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051404 (5 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051404
TOPICS: Modulation, Data modeling, Ranging, Spatial filters, Backscatter, Receivers, Phase shift keying, Electronic filtering, Optical filters, Scattering
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051405 (6 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051405
TOPICS: LIDAR, Scattering, Signal attenuation, Absorption, Profiling, Laser scattering, Receivers, Polarization, Light scattering, Backscatter
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051406 (16 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051406
TOPICS: Modulation, Scattering, Light scattering, Laser scattering, Modulation transfer functions, Signal attenuation, Receivers, Backscatter, Spatial resolution, Frequency modulation
Andreas Rudolf, Thomas Walther
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051407 (27 January 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051407
TOPICS: LIDAR, Temperature metrology, Calibration, Sensors, Optical filters, Light scattering, Laser scattering, Water, Phase measurement, Scattering
Zao Xu, Dick Yue
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (5 February 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051408
TOPICS: Monte Carlo methods, Sensors, Scattering, Radiative transfer, Photon transport, Data modeling, Computer simulations, Interfaces, Refraction, Statistical modeling
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051409 (22 April 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051409
TOPICS: Imaging systems, Sensing systems, Underwater imaging, Image compression, Receivers, Image quality, Spatial light modulators, Signal attenuation, Compressed sensing, Scattering
Fraser Dalgleish, Joseph Shirron, David Rashkin, Thomas Giddings, Anni K. Vuorenkoski Dalgleish, Ionut Cardei, Bing Ouyang, Frank Caimi, Mihaela Cardei
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051410 (25 April 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051410
TOPICS: Optical simulations, Monte Carlo methods, Signal to noise ratio, Sensors, Signal attenuation, Laser scattering, Scattering, Receivers, Signal detection, Computer simulations
Special Section on Ultrashort Pulsed Laser and Applications Engineering
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051501 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051501
TOPICS: Pulsed laser operation, Laser applications, Femtosecond phenomena, Fiber lasers, Materials processing, Ultrafast phenomena, Chemistry, Dye lasers, Solid state lasers, Solid state electronics
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051502 (2 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051502
TOPICS: Refractive index, Neon, Standards development, Optical fibers, Environmental sensing, Frequency combs, Humidity, Protactinium, Optical testing, Laser stabilization
Wu-Jung Tsai, Chun-Jen Gu, Chung-Wei Cheng, Ji-Bin Horng
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051503 (2 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051503
TOPICS: Glasses, Bessel beams, Femtosecond phenomena, Raman spectroscopy, Silica, Laser cutting, Materials processing, Laser irradiation, Objectives, Axicons
Andreas Schmitt-Sody, Adrian Lucero, David French, William Latham, William White, William Roach
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051504 (4 February 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051504
TOPICS: Electrodes, Plasmas, Physics, Refractive index, Optical engineering, Ultrafast phenomena, Diffraction, Radio propagation, Terahertz radiation, Pulsed laser operation
Bai Nie, Greg Parker, Vadim Lozovoy, Marcos Dantus
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051505 (2 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051505
TOPICS: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Femtosecond phenomena, Picosecond phenomena, Ytterbium, Oscillators, Pulsed laser operation, Fiber lasers, Copper, Mode locking, Single mode fibers
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051506 (16 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051506
TOPICS: Ultrafast phenomena, Microscopy, Fluorescent proteins, Tissues, Image segmentation, Image resolution, Tissue optics, 3D image processing, Coherence (optics), Brain
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051507 (31 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051507
TOPICS: Picosecond phenomena, Optical amplifiers, Crystals, Diode pumped solid state lasers, Pulsed laser operation, Optical fibers, Laser systems engineering, Laser applications, Fiber amplifiers, Oscillators
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051508 (31 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051508
TOPICS: Fiber lasers, Fiber amplifiers, Optical amplifiers, Oscillators, Bragg cells, Femtosecond phenomena, Mode locking, Laser systems engineering, Picosecond phenomena, Signal to noise ratio
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051509 (31 December 2013) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051509
TOPICS: Fiber Bragg gratings, Numerical modeling, Glasses, Wave propagation, Refractive index, Optical engineering, Modulation, Picosecond phenomena, Diffraction, Dispersion
Sanjay Varma, Nathan Hagan, Miquel Antoine, Joseph Miragliotta, Plamen Demirev
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051510 (17 January 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051510
TOPICS: Femtosecond phenomena, Proteins, Water, Molecular lasers, Ionization, Molecules, Pulsed laser operation, Ions, Sapphire lasers, Oxidation
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051511 (9 January 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051511
TOPICS: Second-harmonic generation, Phase measurement, Pulsed laser operation, Ultrafast lasers, Femtosecond phenomena, Laser systems engineering, Optical amplifiers, Optical engineering, Fiber lasers, Calibration
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051512 (27 January 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051512
TOPICS: Reflectivity, Laser ablation, Reflection, Dielectrics, Pulsed laser operation, Laser processing, Ultrafast phenomena, Plasma, Refractive index, Electrons
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051513 (13 February 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051513
TOPICS: Laser drilling, Laser cutting, Fiber lasers, Scanning electron microscopy, Laser ablation, Femtosecond phenomena, Micromachining, Glasses, Femtosecond fiber lasers, Tissues
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051514 (6 February 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051514
TOPICS: Fiber Bragg gratings, Diffraction, Glasses, Diffraction gratings, Refractive index, Ultrafast phenomena, Pulsed laser operation, Scattering, Modulation, Mirrors
Sanjay Varma, Jane Spicer, Benjamin Brawley, Joseph Miragliotta
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051515 (22 April 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.051515
TOPICS: Plasma, Femtosecond phenomena, Pulsed laser operation, Copper, Ultrafast phenomena, Glasses, Metals, Electromagnetism, Dielectrics, Atmospheric plasma
Imaging Components, Systems, and Processing
Xiao Xiao, Yang Zhang, Xiaowei Liu
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053101 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053101
TOPICS: Imaging systems, Sensors, Wavefront sensors, Image sensors, Image resolution, Phase modulation, Wavefronts, Modulation, Spatial light modulators, CCD image sensors
Ju Tang, Liang Huang
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053102 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053102
TOPICS: Fractal analysis, Feature extraction, Pattern recognition, Contamination, Particles, Luminescence, Fiber optics sensors, Optical engineering, Geographic information systems, Image processing
Fudong Li, De Xu, Yali Shi, Zhengtao Zhang
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053103 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053103
TOPICS: Cameras, Glasses, Calibration, Silicon, Feature extraction, Visualization, Microscopes, Imaging systems, Optical engineering, Microelectromechanical systems
Won Oh Lee, Yeong Gon Kim, Kwang Yong Shin, Dat Tien Nguyen, Ki Wan Kim, Kang Ryoung Park, Cheon In Oh
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053104 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053104
TOPICS: Head, Cameras, Calibration, Televisions, Eye, Facial recognition systems, Databases, Optical engineering, Distance measurement, Visible radiation
Jun-Hyung Kim, Jieun Kim, Sohyun Kim, Joohyoung Lee, Boohwan Lee
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053105 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053105
TOPICS: Scene based nonuniformity corrections, Nonuniformity corrections, Sensors, Infrared radiation, Infrared imaging, Staring arrays, Image filtering, Optical engineering, Cameras, Infrared sensors
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053106 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053106
TOPICS: Range imaging, Sensors, Pulsed laser operation, Ranging, Compressed sensing, Super resolution, Error analysis, Image processing, Optical engineering, Signal to noise ratio
Andrei Fridman, Gudrun Høye, Trond Løke
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053107 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053107
TOPICS: Cameras, Spatial resolution, Sensors, Image quality, Optical engineering, Device simulation, Image processing, Signal to noise ratio, Optical design, Error analysis
Cihan Altuntas
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053108 (9 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053108
TOPICS: Image registration, Clouds, Laser scanners, 3D scanning, 3D image processing, Cameras, 3D acquisition, Optical engineering, Geomatics, Feature extraction
Li Liu, Yuntao He, Jianguo Zhang, Huayu Jia, Jun Ma
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053109 (9 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053109
TOPICS: Calibration, Synthetic apertures, Imaging systems, Condition numbers, Modulation transfer functions, Phase measurement, Point spread functions, Optical engineering, Objectives, Algorithms
Zujin Wang, Xiaodiao Huang
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053110 (13 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053110
TOPICS: Visualization, Genetic algorithms, Image analysis, Detection and tracking algorithms, Optimization (mathematics), Optical engineering, Error analysis, Machine vision, Binary data, Image processing
Chul Woo Cho, Hyeon Chang Lee, Su Yeong Gwon, Jong Man Lee, Dongwook Jung, Kang Ryoung Park, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Jihun Cha
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053111 (14 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053111
TOPICS: Eye, Fuzzy logic, Quality measurement, Detection and tracking algorithms, Cameras, Distortion, Calibration, Fiber optic illuminators, Near infrared, Optical engineering
Chunfei Ma, Seung-Jin Baek, Kang-A Choi, Sung-Jea Ko
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053112 (14 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053112
TOPICS: Chromium, Head, Transform theory, Calibration, Eye, Infrared imaging, Light sources, Error analysis, 3D modeling, Visual optics
Andreas Klein, Alfred Nischwitz, Peter Schätz, Paul Obermeier
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053113 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053113
TOPICS: Thermography, Infrared imaging, Infrared radiation, Computer simulations, Sun, 3D image processing, Temperature metrology, Visualization, Thermal modeling, Optical engineering
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 053114 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.053114
TOPICS: Microscopes, X-rays, Mirrors, X-ray imaging, Spatial resolution, Reflectivity, Multilayers, Diagnostics, Solids, Plasma
Instrumentation, Techniques, and Measurement
Xiuyun Ren, Zhaoshuo Tian, Ruizhe Lin, Wenjun Liu
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054101 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054101
TOPICS: Solitons, Dispersion, Photonic crystal fibers, Ultrafast phenomena, Crystals, Wave propagation, Second-harmonic generation, Solids, Nonlinear optics, Femtosecond phenomena
Yongjun Long, Xiaohui Wei, Chunlei Wang, Xin Dai, Shigang Wang
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054102 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054102
TOPICS: Phase modulation, Actuators, Electromagnetism, Magnetism, 3D modeling, Mirrors, Promethium, Optical engineering, Computer aided design, Numerical simulations
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054103 (6 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054103
TOPICS: Charge-coupled devices, Wavefronts, Shearing interferometers, Collimation, Wavefront reconstruction, Lithium, Wavefront aberrations, Error analysis, Optical alignment, Optical engineering
Mohamed El-Tokhy, Imbaby Mahmoud
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054104 (9 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054104
TOPICS: Quantum wells, Phototransistors, Infrared radiation, Infrared photography, Mathematical modeling, Instrument modeling, Performance modeling, Signal to noise ratio, Optical engineering, Infrared detectors
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054105 (12 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054105
TOPICS: Crystals, Interferometry, Lithium niobate, Electro optics, Fringe analysis, Polarization, Interferometers, Semiconducting wafers, Iterated function systems, Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Pengfei Zhang, Hong Zhao, Jin Huang, Bingcai Liu, Fen Gao
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054106 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054106
TOPICS: Photovoltaics, Phase compensation, Optical spheres, Visibility, Optical engineering, Interferometers, Optimization (mathematics), Optical testing, Phase measurement, Data fusion
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054107 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054107
TOPICS: Cameras, Digital image correlation, Imaging systems, Digital cameras, Distortion, Image processing, Aluminum, Optical engineering, Error analysis, CMOS cameras
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054108 (21 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054108
TOPICS: Computer generated holography, Zone plates, Fringe analysis, Holograms, Parallel processing, Digital holography, Light sources, Computing systems, 3D displays, Optical engineering
Charles Joenathan, Ashley Bernal, Youn Woonghee, Yanzeng Li, Wanseok Oh
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 054109 (28 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.054109
TOPICS: Holography, Monochromatic aberrations, Wavefronts, Interferometers, Collimation, Spatial frequencies, Fourier transforms, CCD cameras, Diffraction gratings, Optical filters
Optical Design and Engineering
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055101 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055101
TOPICS: Beam shaping, Beam propagation method, Diffraction, Gaussian beams, Optical design, Transform theory, Wavefronts, Wave propagation, Geometrical optics, Ray tracing
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055102 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055102
TOPICS: Polishing, Surface finishing, Robotic systems, Optics manufacturing, Polishing equipment, Optical engineering, Optical signal processing, Head, Astronomical imaging, Aspheric lenses
Ming-Huan Wang, Qiong-Hua Wang, Chao Liu
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055103 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055103
TOPICS: Optical switching, Electrodes, Liquids, Switches, Signal attenuation, Adsorption, Video, Optical arrays, Indium, Tin
Zheng-jie Cai, Gui-qiang Liu, Zheng-qi Liu, Xiao-shan Liu, Xiang-nan Zhang, Ying Hu, Yuan-hao Chen
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055104 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055104
TOPICS: Transparency, Reflection, Metals, Thin films, Silver, Dielectrics, Surface plasmons, Optical properties, Transmittance, Interfaces
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055105 (12 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055105
TOPICS: Gaussian beams, Collimation, Scintillation, Atrial fibrillation, Turbulence, Atmospheric optics, Atmospheric propagation, Atmospheric turbulence, Optical engineering, Communication engineering
Gokulakrishnan Kandasamy, Suresh Ponnan, T. V. Sivasubramonia Pillai, Rajesh Balasundaram
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055106 (13 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055106
TOPICS: Optical tweezers, Wavefronts, Gaussian beams, Polarization, Diffraction, Objectives, Bessel functions, Optical engineering, Electrochemical etching, Physics
Ik-Bu Sohn, Md. Shamim Ahsan, Young-Chul Noh, Hun-Kook Choi, Jin-Tae Kim, Myeong-Jin Ko
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055107 (14 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055107
TOPICS: Femtosecond phenomena, Glasses, Lithography, Silica, Diffraction, Helium neon lasers, Zone plates, Laser applications, Fabrication, Coating
Belkacem Bakhouche, Abdelkrim Beniaiche, Hocine Guessas
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055108 (14 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055108
TOPICS: Polarization, Polarizers, Optics manufacturing, Refractive index, Optical components, Optical testing, Wave plates, Reflection, Optical power meters, Glasses
Nazmi Mohamed, Asmaa Aly, Ahmed AboulSeoud, Moustafa Aly
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 055109 (19 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.055109
TOPICS: Signal to noise ratio, Polarizers, Interference (communication), Sensors, Photodetectors, Modulation, Surface plasmons, Telecommunications, Transmittance, Capacitance
Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications
Pengchao He, Jinhai Si, Lihe Yan, Xin Liu, Xiaofang Wang, Feng Chen, Xun Hou
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056101 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056101
TOPICS: Femtosecond phenomena, Ultrafast imaging, Nonlinear response, Transient nonlinear optics, Silica, Polarization, Birefringence, Pulsed laser operation, Laser beam diagnostics, Plasma
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056102 (5 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056102
TOPICS: Signal processing, Distortion, Single mode fibers, Optical engineering, Dispersion, Picosecond phenomena, Digital signal processing, Photonics, Computer simulations
Yinfang Chen, Rong Wang, Tao Fang, Tao Pu, Peng Xiang, Jilin Zheng, Huatao Zhu
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056103 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056103
TOPICS: Electro optics, Modulators, Computer programming, Code division multiplexing, Electrodes, Receivers, Picosecond phenomena, Signal attenuation, Transmittance, Signal to noise ratio
Alexandre Yamamoto, Aurenice Oliveira, Ivan Lima
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056104 (7 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056104
TOPICS: Monte Carlo methods, Error analysis, Telecommunications, Polarization, Optical fibers, Statistical analysis, Computer simulations, Receivers, Systems modeling, Interference (communication)
Simin Li, Linlin Lu, Junshou Zheng, Lianyan Li, Yuechun Shi, Xiangfei Chen
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056105 (9 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056105
TOPICS: Phase shifts, Semiconductor lasers, Microwave radiation, Laser resonators, Lithium, Optical engineering, Signal generators, Structural design, Optical design, Holography
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056106 (13 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056106
TOPICS: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Receivers, Digital signal processing, Passive optical networks, Switches, Head, Optical networks, Optical amplifiers, Optical engineering, Avalanche photodetectors
Xiaorui Wang, Yejun Liu, Lei Guo, Hui Li
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056107 (14 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056107
TOPICS: Optical communications, Modulation, Telecommunications, Spatial light modulators, Spiral phase plates, Single photon, Holograms, Receivers, Transmitters, Satellites
Long Chen, Jing He, Yi Liu, Lin Chen, Zizheng Cao
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056108 (19 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056108
TOPICS: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Modulation, Singular optics, Signal detection, Energy efficiency, Optical engineering, Radio over Fiber, Numerical simulations, Bandpass filters, Signal processing
Shuai Wei, Jinhui Yuan, Chongxiu Yu, Sha Li, Boyuan Jin, Xiaoming Hu, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu
Opt. Eng. 53(5), 056109 (19 May 2014) https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.53.5.056109
TOPICS: Solitons, Glasses, Dispersion, Raman spectroscopy, Photonic crystal fibers, Silica, Refractive index, Radio propagation, Cladding, Waveguides