Editorial
Opt. Eng 53(6), 060101 (4 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.060101
TOPICS: Optical engineering, Solids, Microelectromechanical systems, Microopto electromechanical systems
Review Papers
Jose Marques, Katharina Lorenz
Opt. Eng 53(6), 060901 (12 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.060901
TOPICS: Lithium, Niobium, Crystals, Hybrid fiber optics, Picture Archiving and Communication System, Doping, Chemical species, Sensors, Magnesium, Optical engineering
Special Section on Laser Sensing and Imaging
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061601 (1 May 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061601
TOPICS: Imaging systems, LIDAR, Fiber lasers, Spectroscopy, Optical parametric oscillators, Laser applications, Remote sensing, Mid-IR, Reflectivity, Laser spectroscopy
Shirui Zhang, Daming Dong, Wengang Zheng, Jihua Wang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061602 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061602
TOPICS: Gases, Absorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Infrared radiation, Reconstruction algorithms, UV optics, Infrared detectors, Molecules, Methane, Absorption spectroscopy
Lei Wang, Chunqing Gao, Mingwei Gao, Yan Li, Fuyong Yue, Li Liu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061603 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061603
TOPICS: Crystals, Oscillators, Thulium, Holmium, Semiconductor lasers, Terahertz radiation, Laser crystals, Lithium, Laser stabilization, Fabry–Perot interferometers
Yongji Yu, Xinyu Chen, Jing Zhao, Chao Wang, Chunting Wu, Guangyong Jin
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061604 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061604
TOPICS: Optical parametric oscillators, Crystals, Mid-IR, Neodymium, Lithium niobate, Q switched lasers, Q switching, Mirrors, Electro optics, Reflectivity
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061605 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061605
TOPICS: Waveguides, Phase shifts, Beam steering, Lithium niobate, Crystals, Electro optics, Laser applications, Optical components, Polarization, Optical engineering
Jian Liu, Min Ai, He Zhang, Jiubin Tan
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061606 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061606
TOPICS: Mirrors, Apodization, Wavefronts, Spherical lenses, Microscopy, Particles, Optical tweezers, Reflection, Optical engineering, Polarization
Yuli Han, Xiankang Dou, Dongsong Sun, Haiyun Xia, Zhifeng Shu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061607 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061607
TOPICS: Doppler effect, Signal to noise ratio, LIDAR, Error analysis, Backscatter, Optical engineering, Wind energy, Interferometers, Signal detection, Laser stabilization
Youwei Huang, Fengmei Cao, Weiqi Jin, Su Qiu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061608 (19 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061608
TOPICS: Pulsed laser operation, Scattering, Point spread functions, Light scattering, Imaging systems, Underwater imaging, Submerged target modeling, Image restoration, Laser scattering, Cameras
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061609 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061609
TOPICS: Fiber lasers, Silicates, Mode locking, Fiber amplifiers, Mid-IR, Pulsed laser operation, Optical amplifiers, Thulium, LIDAR, Q switched lasers
Shenyou Zhao, Jing Liu, Dongsheng Wu, Kaida Xu, Weiqi Jin, Hui Guo, Su Qiu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061610 (16 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061610
TOPICS: Imaging systems, Reflectivity, Reflection, Specular reflections, Backscatter, Pulsed laser operation, Optical engineering, Photosensitizer targeting, Optical filters, Sensors
Amira Padilla-Jimenez, William Ortiz-Rivera, Carlos Rios-Velazquez, Iris Vazquez-Ayala, Samuel Hernández-Rivera
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061611 (5 February 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061611
TOPICS: Bacteria, Selenium, Quantum cascade lasers, Microorganisms, Principal component analysis, Spectroscopy, Glasses, Data modeling, Statistical analysis, Laser spectroscopy
Xiaojuan Ning, Yinghui Wang, Xiaopeng Zhang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061612 (20 January 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061612
TOPICS: 3D modeling, Clouds, Buildings, Data modeling, Image segmentation, Optical engineering, Reconstruction algorithms, Laser scanners, Visual process modeling, Systems modeling
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061613 (27 February 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061613
TOPICS: Optical parametric oscillators, Mid-IR, Spectroscopy, Nonlinear crystals, Crystals, Frequency combs, Molecules, Wave propagation, Birefringence, Femtosecond phenomena
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061614 (13 February 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061614
TOPICS: Modulation, LIDAR, Signal to noise ratio, Sensors, Pulsed laser operation, Signal detection, Radar, Data acquisition, Receivers, Clouds
Special Section on Human Vision
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061701 (14 May 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061701
TOPICS: Human vision and color perception, Visual optics, Imaging systems, Eye, Optical engineering, Medical research, Biomedical optics, Systems engineering, Visual system, Light emitting diodes
Baoqing Zhang, Zhichun Mu, Chen Li, Hui Zeng
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061702 (2 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061702
TOPICS: Ear, Databases, Feature extraction, Data modeling, Detection and tracking algorithms, Visualization, Associative arrays, Wavelets, Optical engineering, Chemical species
Salvador Bara, Justo Arines, Eliseo Pailos
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061703 (5 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061703
TOPICS: Signal to noise ratio, Error analysis, Wavefront sensors, Microlens, Wavefronts, Microlens array, Eye, Sensors, Optical engineering, Wavefront reconstruction
Mengchan Sun, Alberto de Castro, Sergio Ortiz, Pablo Perez-Merino, Judith Birkenfeld, Susana Marcos
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061704 (10 January 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061704
TOPICS: Optical coherence tomography, Eye, Eye models, Image segmentation, 3D image processing, Optical alignment, Computer simulations, Cornea, Refractive index, Reflection
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061705 (3 January 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061705
TOPICS: Reflectometry, Eye, Image segmentation, Imaging systems, Optical coherence tomography, Reflectivity, Tomography, Eye models, Coherence (optics), Integrated optics
Benedetto Falsini, Charles Riva, Tommaso Salgarello, Eric Logean, Alberto Colotto, Andrea Giudiceandrea
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061706 (31 January 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061706
TOPICS: Colorimetry, Blood circulation, Optic nerve, Head, Doppler effect, Eye, Modulation, Mercury, Cameras, Optical engineering
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061707 (17 January 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061707
TOPICS: Prisms, Reflection, Visualization, Eye, Optical engineering, Transmittance, Polymethylmethacrylate, Photography, Solids, Ray tracing
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061708 (12 February 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061708
TOPICS: Visualization, Image quality, Colorimetry, Optical engineering, Galactic astronomy, Light sources and illumination, Color reproduction, Design for manufacturability, Manufacturing, Sensors
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061709 (18 March 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061709
TOPICS: Eye, Spatial light modulators, Monochromatic aberrations, Modulation transfer functions, Image sensors, CCD image sensors, Liquid crystal on silicon, Visualization, Image quality, Modulators
Ferran Sanabria, Mikel Arevalo, Fernando Diaz-Douton, Carlos Garcia-Guerra, Jaume Ramo
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061710 (10 March 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061710
TOPICS: Modulation transfer functions, Light sources, CCD cameras, CMOS cameras, Spherical lenses, Speckle, Cameras, Scattering, Eye, Imaging systems
John McIntire, Steve Wright, Lawrence Harrington, Paul Havig, Scott Watamaniuk, Eric Heft
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061711 (10 March 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061711
TOPICS: Distance measurement, 3D displays, Eye, Optical engineering, Visualization, Cameras, Prisms, Image fusion, LCDs, Analytical research
Opt. Eng 53(6), 061712 (28 April 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.061712
TOPICS: Contrast transfer function, Eye, Eye models, Modulation transfer functions, Visual process modeling, Targeting Task Performance metric, Data modeling, Performance modeling, Imaging systems, Calibration
Imaging Components, Systems, and Processing
Xiang Guo, Jin Liang, Zhengzong Tang, Binggang Cao, Miao Yu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063101 (4 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063101
TOPICS: Digital image correlation, Tungsten, Optical filters, Carbon, Speckle pattern, Bandpass filters, Image filtering, Speckle, Optical filtering, Linear filtering
Hyunho Jo, Donggyu Sim
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063102 (5 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063102
TOPICS: Video, Visualization, Video processing, Video coding, Optical engineering, Microchannel plates, Algorithm development, Computer programming, Clocks, Semantic video
Kiho Choi, Euee Jang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063103 (13 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063103
TOPICS: Computer programming, Video coding, Motion estimation, Optical engineering, Computer architecture, Standards development, Video, Algorithm development, Internet, Televisions
Changryoul Choi, Jechang Jeong
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063104 (23 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063104
TOPICS: Motion estimation, Image filtering, Distortion, Optical engineering, Video compression, Algorithms, Curium, Signal to noise ratio, Binary data, Electronics
Shou-Bo Zhao, Fu-Min Zhang, Xing-Hua Qu, Zhe Chen, Shi-Wei Zheng
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063105 (23 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063105
TOPICS: Digital micromirror devices, Cameras, Charge-coupled devices, Image processing, Metals, Modulation, Scattering, Light scattering, Digital imaging, Reflectivity
Gordon Robertson, Gareth Maker, Graeme Malcolm
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063106 (23 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063106
TOPICS: Optical parametric oscillators, Crystals, Absorption, Germanium, Zinc, Mirrors, Beam splitters, Hyperspectral imaging, Laser crystals, Fiber lasers
Sungil Kang, Hyunki Hong
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063107 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063107
TOPICS: Reliability, Image segmentation, Optical engineering, Video, Image processing, Venus, Databases, Distance measurement, Image enhancement, Cameras
Jin Yan, Guanghong Gong, Chao Tian
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063108 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063108
TOPICS: Cameras, Calibration, Projection systems, Video, Optical engineering, Fused deposition modeling, Colorimetry, Reflective displays, Edge detection, Image processing
Zhichao Bu, Yinchao Zhang, Siying Chen, Pan Guo, Lu Li, He Chen
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063109 (26 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063109
TOPICS: LIDAR, Signal to noise ratio, Doppler effect, Sensors, Interference (communication), Oscillators, Signal detection, Denoising, Mechanics, Optical engineering
Seul-Ki Kim, Seok-Jeong Song, Hyoungsik Nam
Opt. Eng 53(6), 063110 (27 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.063110
TOPICS: LCDs, Light emitting diodes, Image quality, Optical engineering, Image enhancement, Photography, Image processing, Prototyping, Color difference, LED backlight
Instrumentation, Techniques, and Measurement
Opt. Eng 53(6), 064101 (16 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.064101
TOPICS: Polarization, Retroreflectors, Refraction, Solids, Motion models, Refractive index, Lithium, Optical engineering, Interferometers
Marimuthu Senthil Kumar, Rahul Sharma, Chittur Subramanian Narayanamurthy, Alur Seelin Kiran Kumar
Opt. Eng 53(6), 064102 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.064102
TOPICS: Wavefronts, Spherical lenses, Microlens, Microlens array, Charge-coupled devices, Interferometers, Aerospace engineering, Fizeau interferometers, Distance measurement, Error analysis
Lei Wang, Wei Wang, Qian Zhang, Pengyu Gao
Opt. Eng 53(6), 064103 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.064103
TOPICS: Calibration, Gyroscopes, Navigation systems, Fiber optic gyroscopes, Sensors, Inertial navigation systems, Optical engineering, Error analysis, Velocity measurements, Precision calibration
Optical Design and Engineering
Yumeng Liu, Siqi Zhu, Hao Yin, Anming Li, Yonghua Wu, Zhenqiang Chen, Ge Zhang, Kang Su
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065101 (3 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065101
TOPICS: Raman spectroscopy, Neodymium, Crystals, Laser crystals, Semiconductor lasers, Q switched lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, Pulsed laser operation, Laser systems engineering, Mirrors
Liang Lei, Xin Liu, Xiaobo Xing, Qu Wang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065102 (3 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065102
TOPICS: Ultrasonics, Excimer lasers, Diffraction, Acousto-optics, Diffraction gratings, Excimers, Ultraviolet radiation, Raman spectroscopy, Lithography, Laser applications
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065103 (20 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065103
TOPICS: Aspheric lenses, Modulation, Phase shift keying, Cameras, Phase modulation, Lenses, Beam propagation method, Photovoltaics, Modulation transfer functions, Diffraction
Ichiro Fujieda, Kazuma Arizono, Kazuki Nishida, Naoki Takigawa
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065104 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065104
TOPICS: Phase only filters, Optical fibers, Output couplers, LCDs, Prototyping, Reflectors, Diffusers, Index matching antireflective coatings, Light emitting diodes, Optical engineering
Shenglong Fan, Xin Gu, Xiaolin Zhang, Muqing Liu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065105 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065105
TOPICS: Light emitting diodes, Light sources, Optical filters, Light, Eye, Visualization, Photodetectors, Optical engineering, Data acquisition boards, Fluctuations and noise
Dong-kil Lee, Jun-girl Oh, Won-Gun Jang, Yang-Gyu Kim, Kwanghoon Lee, Anjin Park, Young-Soo Yang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065106 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065106
TOPICS: Aspheric lenses, Glasses, Lenses, Glass molding, Lens design, Lens grinding, Precision glass molding, Plastic lenses, Manufacturing, Optical engineering
Alix Preston, Stephen Merkowitz
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065107 (26 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065107
TOPICS: Retroreflectors, Mirrors, Epoxies, Glasses, Solids, Fabrication, Surface finishing, Error analysis, Optical engineering, Aluminum
Wenlin Liao, Yifan Dai, Xuhui Xie
Opt. Eng 53(6), 065108 (27 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.065108
TOPICS: Nanostructures, Ion beams, Sputter deposition, Silicon, Silica, Ions, Zerodur, Optics manufacturing, Ion beam finishing, X-ray optics
Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066101 (3 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066101
TOPICS: Optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Temperature metrology, Ytterbium, Absorption, Ultraviolet radiation, Cerium, Fiber lasers, Optical pumping, Hydrogen
Tuanwei Xu, Meizhen Ren, Jun He, Gaosheng Fang, Fang Li, Yuliang Liu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066102 (11 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066102
TOPICS: Fiber lasers, Backscatter, Sensors, Reflectivity, Phase shifts, Lead, Single mode fibers, Mirrors, Sensor networks, Fiber Bragg gratings
Yinfang Chen, Rong Wang, Tao Fang, Tao Pu, Peng Xiang, Huatao Zhu, Jilin Zheng
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066103 (13 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066103
TOPICS: Interference (communication), Modulation, Computer programming, Signal detection, Information security, Polarization, Eye, Linear filtering, Phase shift keying, Network security
Mario Gonzalez Montes, Daniel Vázquez, Antonio Fernandez-Balbuena, Eusebio Bernabeu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066104 (20 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066104
TOPICS: Light emitting diodes, Light sources and illumination, LED lighting, Prototyping, Lamps, Optical engineering, Visualization, Optical components, Optimization (mathematics), Collimators
Qiaoyan Zhang, Chongfu Zhang, Wei Jin, Kun Qiu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066105 (20 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066105
TOPICS: Telecommunications, Radio over Fiber, Modulation, Optical networks, Single sideband modulation, Fiber Bragg gratings, Extremely high frequency, Wavelength division multiplexing, Optical communications, Optical fibers
Jintian Xiong, Rong Wang, Tao Pu, Tao Fang, Jilin Zheng, Lin Lu, Peng Xiang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066106 (20 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066106
TOPICS: Modulation, Radio optics, Hybrid fiber radio, Single mode fibers, Linear filtering, Signal detection, Single sideband modulation, Dispersion, Radio over Fiber, Signal generators
Mingxiang Ma, Zhengliang Hu, Pan Xu, Yongming Hu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066107 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066107
TOPICS: Fiber lasers, Visibility, Spatial light modulators, Phase modulation, Coherence (optics), Scanners, Polarization maintaining fibers, Phase shift keying, Interferometry, Fiber optics sensors
Zhaomin Zhang, Jiachuan Lin, Xiaofei Su, Lixia Xi, Yaojun Qiao, Xiaoguang Zhang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066108 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066108
TOPICS: Digital signal processing, Tolerancing, Telecommunications, Phase shift keying, Optical communications, Modulation, Optical engineering, Interference (communication), Signal processing, Multiplexing
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066109 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066109
TOPICS: Optical fibers, Cladding, Sensors, Modulation, Optical engineering, Switching, Fiber lasers, Near field scanning optical microscopy, Communication engineering, Fiber Bragg gratings
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066110 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066110
TOPICS: Optical filters, Electronic filtering, Tunable filters, Optical fibers, Microwave photonic filters, Scattering, Signal detection, Modulators, Microwave photonics, Modulation
Yongli Zhao, Jinyan Liu, Jie Zhang, Bowen Chen, Chen Ma, Yiming Yu, Xin Li
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066111 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066111
TOPICS: Reliability, Optical networks, Optical engineering, Curium, Optical communications, Wavelength division multiplexing, Algorithm development, Photonics, Computer simulations, Device simulation
Nan Huang, Hongjun Liu, Qibing Sun
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066112 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066112
TOPICS: Terahertz radiation, Crystals, Nonlinear crystals, Optical parametric oscillators, Laser crystals, Surface finishing, Oscillators, Optical engineering, Laser scattering, Scattering
Opt. Eng 53(6), 066113 (27 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.066113
TOPICS: Laser cutting, Radium, Aluminum, Fiber lasers, Continuous wave operation, Gas lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, Carbon monoxide, Phase modulation, Optical engineering
Materials, Photonic Devices, and Sensors
Opt. Eng 53(6), 067101 (12 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.067101
TOPICS: Sensors, Temperature metrology, Interferometers, Gas lasers, Protactinium, Femtosecond phenomena, Multiplexing, Carbon monoxide, Fiber Bragg gratings, Single mode fibers
Yixin Zhang, Xuping Zhang, Yuanlei Shi, Zhoufeng Ying, Shun Wang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 067102 (20 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.067102
TOPICS: Modulation, Electrooptic modulators, Signal detection, Seaborgium, Single photon, Avalanche photodiodes, Modulators, Interference (communication), Optical engineering, Bessel functions
Opt. Eng 53(6), 067103 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.067103
TOPICS: Liquids, Micro optical fluidics, Silver, Plasmonics, Sensors, Temperature sensors, Surface plasmons, Coating, Bioalcohols, Structured optical fibers
Opt. Eng 53(6), 067104 (24 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.067104
TOPICS: Modulation, Liquid crystal on silicon, Phase shift keying, Polarimetry, Polarizers, Calibration, Quantization, Optical engineering, Spatial light modulators, LCDs
Errata
Kaida Xu, Weiqi Jin, Shenyou Zhao, Jing Liu, Hui Guo, Su Qiu, Dongsheng Wu
Opt. Eng 53(6), 069801 (20 December 2013) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.069801
TOPICS: Imaging systems, Mathematical modeling, Laser applications, Optoelectronics, Imaging technologies, Night vision systems, Night vision, Optical engineering
Morvarid Rashidian, Davoud Dorranian
Opt. Eng 53(6), 069802 (25 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.069802
TOPICS: Plasmonics, Absorption, Nonlinear optics, Gold, Nanoparticles, Scientific research, Plasma physics, Analytical research
Jose Marques, Katharina Lorenz
Opt. Eng 53(6), 069803 (26 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.069803
TOPICS: Lithium, Niobium, Lawrencium, Tantalum, Iron, Cadmium, Optical engineering
Shaoxin Shen, Ren Xuechang, Shou Liu, Zhilin Yang, Yuanying Zhang
Opt. Eng 53(6), 069804 (26 June 2014) doi:10.1117/1.OE.53.6.069804
TOPICS: Phased arrays, Holography, Lithography, Photonic crystals, Nanostructures, Raman spectroscopy, Phase modulation, Photoresist materials, Crystals, Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
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