A probabilistically shaped 9-ary carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP-9) optical modulation format based on a reverse distribution model is proposed. We experimentally demonstrate the transmission of 33.3-Gb / s PS-CAP-9 signals over 25-km standard single-mode fiber in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system. The results indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional uniform CAP-16 and the conventional PS-CAP-16 in receiver sensitivity by 1.2 and 0.4 dB at the threshold of 3.8 × 10 − 3 BER, respectively.
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