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11 February 2020 Effects of pulsed and continuous-wave laser radiation on the fabrication of tissue-engineered composite structures
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We studied the formation of a composite from an aqueous dispersed medium with albumin and carbon nanotubes under the action of laser radiation in continuous wave (CW) mode and pulsed mode with a repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 16 ns. During the experiments, the temperature was monitored at the site of exposure, as well as its distribution in the liquid. Pulsed solid-state Nd:YAG laser and CW diode laser with an irradiation power of ∼500  mW were used as radiation sources. However, a three-dimensional composite was formed only with constant exposure. The effect of pulsed laser radiation with an intensity corresponding to nonlinear interaction with water dispersion led only to its enlightenment. Thus, it is important not only the energy parameters of radiation but also the frequency of energy portions exposure for the fabrication of tissue-engineered structures (composites). As a result, it was found that the curing of the dispersion and the composite formation occurs under the action of continuous or pulsed (with a high pulse repetition rate) laser radiation at a temperature in the range from 45°C to 50°C; in case the pulse repetition rate is insufficient, composite formation is not observed even under the action of high intensity radiation and heating occurs only to a temperature of ∼40  °  C. This formation process can be generated both in the visible 532 nm and in the infrared 810-nm wavelength ranges. In this case, one of the main conditions is the absence of albumin or cells absorption at these wavelengths so that absorption occurs mainly with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Studies of the surface and internal structure of the composite made it possible to demonstrate the binding of nanotubes to each other. This happened under the influence of laser radiation. This led to high hardness values of the composites. The average value of hardness was 0.26  ±  0.02  GPa.

© 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) 0091-3286/2020/$28.00 © 2020 SPIE
Mikhail S. Savelyev, Natalia O. Agafonova, Pavel N. Vasilevsky, Dmitry I. Ryabkin, Dmitry V. Telyshev, Peter S. Timashev, and Alexander Y. Gerasimenko "Effects of pulsed and continuous-wave laser radiation on the fabrication of tissue-engineered composite structures," Optical Engineering 59(6), 061623 (11 February 2020).
Received: 31 October 2019; Accepted: 22 January 2020; Published: 11 February 2020

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