We propose and experimentally demonstrate visible-light positioning (VLP) systems using silicon photovoltaic cells (Si-PVCs) and machine learning and neural network algorithms. Both angle-of-arrival (AOA)-based and received-signal-strength (RSS)-based VLP systems are evaluated and compared. The Si-PVC could also provide energy harvesting to store received optical power for the mobile unit. Here, second-order linear regression machine learning (RML) model and two-layer neural network are implemented in both AOA-based and RSS-based VLP systems to enhance the positioning accuracy. The root mean square (RMS) average positioning error of the AOA-based VLP system is reduced from 7.22 to 3.46 and to 2.99 cm when using the RML and neural network, respectively. The RMS average positioning error of the RSS-based VLP system is reduced from 7.07 to 3.01 and to 2.60 cm when using the RML and neural network, respectively. The experimental results clearly illustrate that the proposed schemes can significantly improve the positioning accuracy.
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