RESOLUTION and RESOLVING POWER . Eye resolution - The resolution of the eye is greatly influenced by the size, shape, color, contrast, and illumination of the target and by the (subjective) ability of the observer to evaluate detail.
The advent of spaceborne instrument carriers has put the science of astronomy on the threshold of a vast expansion in the information that can be obtained. The basic advances in astronomical observation that can be realized from space will be described and related to mankind's quest for improved understanding of the universe. The impact of these unfolding opportunities on the "astronomy community" and on the types of astronomy instrumentation will be discussed. Also, an overview will be presented of the existing space astronomy programs, the new programs being con-sidered for the next decade, and the expansion in ground-based astronomy that may result from astronomy in space.
The extant problems of point source photographic photometry in relation to re-entry vehicle cinephotography lie in the areas of obtaining radiant intensity measurement accuracies better than 50%, and in analysis of large numbers of photographic images within a reasonable time span. This paper reviews these problems, demonstrates and assesses a technique to improve overall calibration accuracy, and presents quantitative data on point image microstructure, useful in predicting accurate values of film-scanner operational parameters. An experimental study is described in which cali-bration curves of point image area and diameter versus exposure were produced for four Kodak emulsion types. Parameter values were chosen to simulate those encountered on a typical re-entry photography mission. The capabilities and limitations of the isodensitracer as used in a calibration scheme are assessed.
The design and application of a wide field photomultiplier detection system will be presented. The instrument was designed to detect the luminous entry of rocket borne artificial meteors into the earth's atmosphere. The instrument has been used to provide a real-time correlation between photographic and radar signatures of artificial meteors, "quick-look" data for vehicle performance evaluation, and experimental data on some of the parameters involved in the photo-electric photometry of natural meteors.
This paper describes a Thin Probe Pulsed Light Photometer for "direct" reading at the film plane. It represents an "order of magnitude" improvement in sensitivity, and measures pulsed light intensities to an accuracy of 5%. It is not affected by direct daylight, only pulsed light. Method of calibration and the practical use of this meter to test the timing performance of cameras on the range or track will be presented.