The primary characteristic of meteorology that sets it apart from other applied sciences is its constant demand for periodic and timely observations. The entire world atmosphere must be observed, and its size and inaccessibility account in large part for the difficulty in advancing the discipline. It has been physically impossible to observationally sample the tremendous volume of the atmosphere with sufficient completeness to fully comprehend its vagaries, let alone make always accurate forecasts.
APPROACH TO DIFFERENTIATING AMONG WHITE BLOOD CELLS A problem of great importance in medicine is that of distinguishing among different types of white blood cells, or leucocvtes. Unlike the red blood cell, the white blood cell has a nucleus. The nucleus may be round in shape â€" that is, can have a circular boundary as seen through the microscope - or it can be kidney-shaped, or it can have two, three, or more lobes, see Figure 1 a. The general theory is that a white blood cell starts out with a circular nucleus, which as the cell matures becomes kidney-shaped, and finally lobular, or Polymorphonuclear. Thus our problem becomes one of distinguishing among these shapes of nuclear boundaries.
The performance of an optical system can be specified by the OTF or by means of a new method employing pupil-scan-ning Whilst the former technique is most suitable when an image is transferred through a chain of units operating in sequence, the latter system, was developed for testing high performance trackers for which a maximum of energy concentration is required. Instruments for measuring the OTF, displaying spot diagrams, transverse ray aberrations and wavefront aberrations, are compared and contrasted. The performance characteristics of typical image transfer systems such as microscope lenses, process lenses, IR trackers and fibre face plates are presented by way of example. All the techniques described have been developed over the last ten years to satisfy the special requirements of both manufacturers and users of electro-optical systems.
The evaluation of image quality parameters directly from the image is often required when the imaging system point spread is not known. The derivation of the parameter values from microdensitometer scans across the images of inferred edges in the scene format is a popular technique. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the errors incurred and the simplification that results from making certain approximations in deriving the values of two particular parameters. The measures of image quality sought are "resolution", which is defined as the area under the transfer function, and "passband", which is the area under the square of the transfer function. An expression is derived for low contrast edges which provides a simple relation between the edge density trace and the line spread function which is independent of film gamma, and the error in resolution and passband resulting from its use as an approximation for edges of higher contrast is given. The second approximation considered is due to the practical requirement that the density trace of the edge is truncated. Closed-form edge-density functions derived from transfer functions consisting of weighted superpositions of exponential and gaussian terms were terminated by "visual" inspection and used to evaluate the errors introduced in the computations of the resolution and passband.
A technique is described for calibrating shock accelerometers by measuring the Doppler shift in light frequency produced by the change in velocity of a target. The system employs a quadrature laser interferometer and a single-side-band carrier insertion circuit to distinguish between positive and negative velocities. Key words: Accelerometer; calibration; Doppler; interferometer; laser; shock measuring; single-side-band.
The diagrams and photographs represent the present state of development of the Aerospace/Loma University School of Medicine cooperative effort to measure the volume of the human heart left ventricle directly from 35 cineoangiograms. A cineoangiogram is obtained by photographing the output of an image amplifier when blood soluble radio opaque contrast media is passed through the heart. The physician passes a catheter through the circulatory system into the vicinity of the heart. At the same time, he raises the voltage on his x-ray, starts the cinecamera, and gives a high speed injection of the contrast media which is heavily loaded with Iodine is used because the very high molecular weight shows up well against the x-rays. Also, the kidneys tolerate the iodine reasonably well when it comes to removing the iodine from the blood stream. Most contemporary procedures are framed at anywhere from 40 to 80 frames per second, although some research efforts go as high as 200 frames per second.
The optimum conditions of stereoptics in relation to man's capabilities of distance judgment are discussed in this paper. It is suggested that by using stereo-optical instrumentation combined with the apparent movement phenomenon, a better visual effect will be produced than by using the stereoptic effect alone.