The Mapping Camera Subsystem provides precision metric photography of the lunar surface as well as time correlated stellar photography used for post-flight camera system attitude determination. A multiple camera system, such as the Lunar Mapper, requires the need for precise stellar calibration to assure maximum usability of its photography in subsequent photogrammetric data reduction. The pertinent parameters of the Lunar Mapping Camera Subsystem, as well as the plans and techniques for performing the overall stellar calibration task are summarized. Included is a review of stellar calibration plans for site selection, site development, logistics, mission observation, and data reduction.
HOLOGRAPHY IN 1970 This last year in holography has continued the hectic if somewhat unproductive pace of previous years - in terms of applications. The major journals continue to publish a wide variety of papers. The Journal of the Optical Society of America has 91 index entries, 25 of which are papers and nine letters to the editor. Well over half the entries refer to published abstracts of papers presented at meetings. Applied Optics contains approximately 100 index entries of which 49 are papers and 31 letters. In a recent paper an attempt was made to analyze this literature in a preliminary way by plotting the trends in number of publications. One plot concerned the number of indexed items in the two journals mentioned above. The trends inferred from these plots for the Journal of the Optical Society have proved to be correct as Table 1 shows.
This paper describes and explains with illustrations many of the interesting optical effects frequently observed by an air traveler. During the take-off phase, haze or clouds render the effects of the disturbed air visible and allow the observer to see the scattering which results from small particles. At level flight, cloud droplet scattering differentiates between large and small particle effects. In addition, the colored halos known as "the glory " form interesting patterns as they dart among the clouds. During periods of clear weather, the heiligenschein frequently follows the end point of condensation trails. Polarized sky-light leads to some unusual results when the observer is wearing dark glasses made of a polarizing material. Many other optical effects including shock-wave shadows, shallow-water colors, and the twilight wedge all result from the unique perspective obtained from the aerial vantage point of the air traveler.
It is the author's intention to present a concise dissertation on the MTF criterion for image evaluation in a fashion which hopefully will prove to be both tractable and enlightening, even to those in the field whose background in this subject is not extensive. The general nature of this paper is qualitative rather than quantitative, with the concepts involved being elucidated by frequent appeals to the reader's intuition; however, mathematical analyses are nonetheless occasionally required for clarification purposes. Although tutorial, this paper also seeks to present the necessary foundations for the final paper in this series, which covers a study conducted by the author at Bell & Howell Company. This study employed the MTF criterion in the design, testing, and manufacturing stages of a "Super 8" movie camera system to determine both the degree of image degradation occurring at each of these operations and the effectiveness of current testing procedures.
Conventional stereocompilation, whether carried out manually or automatically, involves a sequential point-by-point measurement of x parallax. This paper describes an "instant-profile" correlator, a coherent optical parallel processor which measures and displays x parallax point by point simultaneously rather than sequentially. With this optical processor, one can select any y strip of the overlapping stereo imagery, measure simultaneously the x parallax over the entire strip, and display at the output x parallax as a function of y photocoordinate. All of the overlapping imagery may be processed in this matter by simply scanning of the stereo photographs with a slit. The theory of operation of the optical parallel processor is discussed and experimental results with aerial photography are presented.
New books and conferences on holography seem to be the vogue at the moment. A conference proceedings was reviewed in the last issue of this column; a major conference was held in Boston in April. It is not surprising then that two new books on holography are reviewed in this column.