A knowledge of both the average infrared radiance of the earth and the variations from this average is required for the design of earth viewing satellite born infrared sensors. For any sensor attempting to view an object while the earth is in its field of view, the radiance of the earth, including its atmosphere, presents a significant background. This background may seriously interfere with the sensing of the object. We present here an analysis of infrared earth radiance data obtained by the NIMBUS III satellite.
The solid state ruby laser makes possible the recording of holograms without either the granite tables or vibration isolation equipment needed with gas lasers. The ruby laser is unique in that it can be made to emit several joules of light in a tenth of a microsecond. In their more conventional form, these lasers are not particularly coherent, due to the width of the ruby R1 lasing transition. Temporal coherence can be as low as one centimeter. Early work at this laboratory saw the development of holographic configurations which compensated for the limited spatial and temporal coherence of ruby lasers. These were used to record transmission holograms of combustion in rocket engines, aerodynamic flow patterns, particulate matter in coal furnaces, etc.
Greatly sharpened images may be extracted from photographs which have been blurred either by accident (motion, imperfect focus, atmospheric turbulence, etc. ) or deliberately, for instance when 'coded' in view of special image processing or synthesis applications. Four image deblurring methods may be distinguished: I. Coherent optical analogue processing, 2. Incoherent optical analogue processing (non-electronic ), 3. Incoherent opto-electronic analogue processing and 4. Digital computer processing. A general review of the field may be found in reference (1). In this paper, we give a brief review of the principles of the holographic image deblurring methods, originated by the author with students in 1967, and now implemented in a number of forms, all of which appear to indicate that this method of coherent optical analogue image processing is probably the most powerful image-deblurring method at this time, notably in view of high-resolution image-restoration applications.
Coherence in the image plane of an optical system depends on the conditions of illumination and the impulse response of the optical components. The propagation of the mutual intensity function from object to image plane is evaluated for various conditions. Experimental measurements verify an increase of coherence under conditions where the mutual intensity function in the object plane is not resolved. These considerations demonstrate the requirement for quality in condenser optical components and care when imaging components are cascaded.
There has been a great deal of interest in recent years in the development of improved systems for displaying the distribution of radioactive tracers inside the human body. There are a number of diagnostic radioisotope studies that depend on accurate imaging, and physicians have come to rely on some of these studies as a necessary part of a routine workup for certain disorders. Some of the most creative activity has been in the field of dynamic flow studies, i.e. imaging the rapid passage of a bolus of radioisotope through an organ of interest. Dynamic flow studies are of especial interest in studies of highly vascular organs such as the heart, lungs, brain, and kidneys.
A new inexpensive series has recently appeared to assit the engineer to keep abreat of today's technologies and tools. The Professional Engineering Career Develpment Series (PECDS) is published by Barnes & Noble under consulting editorship of Dr. John J. McKetta, Jr. and Dr Maurits Dekker. These gentlemen are supported by an eminent editorial advisory committee and a large engineering professional advisory group. The emphasis of the series is clearly stated by Dean E. Griffith in a signed statement that appears on the rear cover of the early volumes.
Automobile crash testing produces three kinds of data: post-impact deformation, trans-impact forces, and trans-impact motions. High speed color movies taken both inside and outside the test car provide the most useful record of the benefit of safety improvements. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc. (CAL) acquires imagery taken from almost every angle during tests which are conducted on an average of once a week of vehicles impacting a concrete barrier, a pole, or another car.