Designing the quantum Internet
The coming Quantum Internet will bring us new capabilities: advanced cryptographic functions, high-precision sensor networks for uses such as high-resolution astronomy, and secure distributed quantum computing. Experimental progress on the components for quantum repeaters is moving at a dizzying rate, and theorists have proposed various approaches to managing errors to create high-fidelity quantum entanglement. Building quantum networks presents different challenges from building quantum links. I will give an overview of these issues, then discuss the even more daunting challenge of creating a network of networks -- an internetwork -- and show how our simulations are guiding the design of a true quantum Internet. These challenges include routing (path selection), resource management such as multiplexing techniques, and security considerations within individual networks. Recently, we have discovered that it is possible for a single hijacked quantum repeater to frame other repeaters as malicious, substantially disrupting network operations. All of these issues are magnified when discussing autonomous networks that exchange information, known as an internetwork. In internetworking, not only is the scale of the problem daunting, but heterogeneous technologies will be deployed and demand interoperability at the logical level as well as the physical. Network operators also prefer to maintain the privacy of their own network operations, requiring mechanisms including connection establishment to operate with minimal sharing of information across network boundaries.