With the increasing frequency of human space activities, the number of spacecraft and space debris on track is increasing. In order to process the information of debris after detecting it in a very short time and reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the detection system at the same time, an active and passive composite optical detection system is designed. The laser emission system in this system uses Galileo telescope system. The laser radar receiving system and the visible light receiving system are integrated in a system. These two systems share the front lens group. And they image respectively using light splitting element at the back of the front lens group. The composite system has the characteristics of miniaturization, light weight and integration. It achieves simultaneous and synchronous observation for the target. It also has good image quality and meets the design requirements.