The object of these article is the conception, the realization and the used of a new imaging process based on the study of the polarization in the light-media interaction. In this investigation, a polarization-based imaging system is developed and described that measures the two-dimensional effective backscattering Mueller matrix of a sample. As is well known, a Mueller matrix can provide considerable information on the makeup and optical characteristics of a sample (depolarization,retardance, diattenuation...), but The reliability of measure and the reconstruction of the mueller matrix
require the analysis of the error and the calibration of a Mueller polarimetre.Simulations enabled us, first, to determine the
measurement error on each element of the Mueller matrix without a sample and, second, to adopt a method of calibration. therefore, the precision of experimentals results given by the Mueller matrix is drastically improved.The studies presented were performed with cancerous tissues and another non cancerous.The results demonstrate how these techniques could provide information that may be of diagnostic value in the physical detection of lesion.
One of the most important properties of a laser resonator is the highly collimated or spatially coherent nature of the laser output beam. The spatial beam quality of the output beam, namely beam diameter and propagation factor M2 are critical parameters in a wide range of practical laser applications. This is because the spatial beam quality determines how tightly the beam can be focused or how well the beam propagates over long distances without significant spreading. It was investigated by many authors in previous years how to define and on how to measure the laser beam quality. An ISO working Draft Committee has also been organized to set-up a standard for definitions and test methods of the laser beam quality. In this work, the quality factor is studied with different methods.