High gamma smartphones based on Android operating system support the development of third-party applications. This kind of devices include subsystems such as sensors and actuators which can be used for diverse purposes. One example is the implementation of short range visible light communication (VLC) channels where the built-in light-emitting diode (LED) is the transmitter, and the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera works as the receiver. A major challenge for this communication channel is the modulation bandwidth of the light source which is limited to a few MHz, and the availability of a line-of-sight. The camera shutter is limited to a few frames per second (30 or 60 fps) for a few bits per second transmission, but the Rolling Shutter effect could allow the enhancement of the bit rate. In this work, we propose a VLC protocol design for the use of the built-in camera and the flash LED in order to implement a short range VLC channel, for high gamma mobile-to-mobile devices based on Android. The design is based on On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation for initially transmitting a few bits. Based on the rolling shutter effect in the CMOS image sensor, bright and dark fringes can be observed within each received frame, and the data can then be retrieved. Furthermore, two thresholding schemes for high fluctuation and large extinction ratio (ER) variations in each frame, are explored. Full protocol design and short range (5 cm), >100 kbits/s, VLC demonstration and image processing results will be included in the presentation.
Different types of mechanical and digital devices for measuring the velocity of fluids such as rotameters, annubar tubes, orifice plates, are suitable options. A limitation of such devices is that the direct interaction with the flux causes unwanted perturbations affecting their results. In this work, the design of a 540nm pulsed fiber laser system for measuring the velocity of water as a fluid via the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is proposed. In particle image velocimetry, the fluid motion is made visible by adding small tracer particles and from the position of these particles, at two instances of time, it is possible to determine the flow velocity. The proposed, made in-house, noncommercial PIV system consists of: a second harmonic generation Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser emitting 540nm pulses, a CCD camera, a pair of cylindrical diverging lenses, reference beads, and the fluid under test. The Yb<sup>3+</sup>-doped fiber laser itself is capable of producing 540nm, 5 – 15ns, 400mJ pulses at 500Hz – 15kHz repetition rates, suitable for PIV flow field studies. Full fiber laser design, in-house PIV system integration and flow field measurement results will be included in the presentation.
The development of novel Al-, Ge- doped and un-doped standard single mode fibers for future optical communication at 2μm requires the integration of, among other pieces of equipment, an optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique for precise spectral attenuation characterization, including the well-known cut-back method. The integration of a state of the art OTDR at 2μm could provide valuable attenuation information from the aforementioned novel fibers. The proposed setup consists of a 1.7 mW, 1960nm pump source, a 30 dB gain Thulium doped fibre amplifier at 2μm, an 0.8mm focal length lens with a 0.5 NA, a 30 MHz acusto-optic modulator, a 3.1 focal length lens with a 0.68NA, an optical circulator at 2μm, an InGaAs photodetector for 1.2 nm-2.6 nm range, a voltage amplifier and an oscilloscope. The propagated pulse rate is 50 KHz, with 500 ns, 200 ns, 100 ns and 50 ns pulse widths. Attenuation versus novel fibers types for lengths ranging from 400- to 1000- meter samples were obtained using the proposed setup.
The spectral noise characteristic and relative intensity noise of an all fibre Sagnac interferometer system consisting of a 980nm pump source at 130mW maximum output power, a 980/1550nm wavelength division multiplexer, a 10m-piece of Erbium-doped fibre, a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) centered at 1.548um, an optical circulator at 1550nm and a 50/50 fibre coupler, were measured with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) for fine tuning for a range of temperature between 5 and 180 degrees Celsius in step of 1 degree Celsius. At the probing end, a high-bi piece of fibre and a Peltier were employed for temperature variation of the system. Spectral and temperature response of the noise reduction due to temperature variation was performed remotely using and Arduino micro-controller and a DS18B20 digital sensor, into a local area network. Full optical and thermal characterization of the system will be included in the presentation.
This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.