Platform: What physical attributes separate EM waves, of the enormous band of radio to visible to x-ray, from the high energy narrow band of gamma-ray? From radio to visible to x-ray, telescopes are designed based upon the optical imaging theory; which is an extension of the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral. Do we understand the physical properties of gamma rays that defy us to manipulate them similarly? One demonstrated unique property of gamma rays is that they can be converted to elementary particles (electron and positron pair); or a particle-antiparticle pair can be converted into gamma rays. Thus, EM waves and elementary particles, being inter-convertible; we cannot expect to understand the deeper nature of light without succeeding to find structural inter-relationship between photons and particles. This topic is directly relevant to develop a deeper understanding of the nature of light; which will, in turn, help our engineers to invent better optical instruments.
The linguistic and epistemological constraints on finding and expressing an answer to the title question are reviewed. First, it is recalled that "fields" are defined in terms of their effect on "test charges" and not in terms of any, even idealistically considered, primary, native innate qualities of their own. Thus, before fields can be discussed, the theorist has to have already available a defined "test particle" and field source. Clearly, neither the test nor the engendering particles can be defined as elements of the considered field without redefining the term "field." Further, the development of a theory as a logical structure (i.e., an internally self consistent conceptual complex) entails that the subject(s) of the theory (the primitive elements) and the rules governing their interrelationships (axioms) cannot be deduced by any logical procedure. They are always hypothesized on the basis of intuition supported by empirical experience. Given hypothesized primitive elements and axioms it is possible, in principle, to test for the 'completion' of the axiom set (i.e., any addition introduces redundancy) and for self consistency. Thus, theory building is limited to establishing the self consistency of a theory's mathematical expression and comparing that with the external, ontic world. Finally, a classical model with an event-by-event simulation of an EPR-B experiment to test a Bell Inequality is described. This model leads to a violation of Bell's limit without any quantum input (no nonlocal interaction nor entanglement), thus substantiating previous critical analysis of the derivation of Bell inequalities. On the basis of this result, it can be concluded that the electromagnetic interaction possesses no preternatural aspects, and that the usual models in terms of waves, fields and photons are all just imaginary constructs with questionable relation to a presumed reality.
Critical analysis is given for mystical aspects of the current understanding of interaction between charged particles: wave-particle duality and nonlocal entanglement. A possible statistical effect concerning distribution functions for coincidences between the output channels of beam splitters is described. If this effect is observed in beam splitter data, ten significant evidence for photon splitting, i.e. , against the notion that light is ultimately packaged in finite chunks, has been found. An argument is given for the invalidity of the meaning attached to tests of Bell inequalities. Additionally, a totally classical paradigm for the calculation of the customary expression for the “quantum” coincidence coefficient pertaining to the singlet state is described. If fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities taken nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of, inter alia, light. Described. It fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities take n nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of inter alia, light.
It is observed that a critical aspect of tests of Bell-inequalities is the employ of entities considered to be in the singlet
state. This state is known to require extra-logical consideration to render it compatible with the current most popular
interpretation of Quantum Theory. We show that the critical structure of this state for the analysis of these tests can be
spoofed by feasible, classical effects, that thus far have not been absolutely precluded. Finally, we present statistical
analysis showing that selecting for valid pairs of correlated signals by reducing the time off-set or window-width defining
acceptable coincidences, actually and perversely supports the spoof mechanism.
We propose a classical, i.e., local-real physical model of processes underlying EPR experiments. The model leads
to the prediction, that the visibility of the output signal will exhibit increasing variation as the coincidence window is
increased, thus providing a testable criteria for its validity. If it can be sustained, this model undermines the claim that
Nature has a fundamentally nonlocal feature or that irreal entities are required by quantum theory.
A survey of a study leading to the conclusion that there is no support for non locality in Quantum Mechanics is presented.
Models based on Malus' Law for generic EPR and GHZ experiments are cited. It is observed that 'entangled' polarization,
as governed by the <i>SU</i>(2) group structure, cannot be a quantum phenomenon. The implications of these results for
researches on quantum computing are considered.
Finding a model or paradigm to capture the essence of light, is an enterprise of historic legend. The two main contenders,
particle beams and waves have alternated in acceptance, with each ultimately proving unsatisfactory. Currently, the particle
variant is predominant, but with strong caveats encompassed in Bohr's Principle of Complementarity. Herein a
study of correlated pairs of photons is presented. It reveals additional challenges for the particle paradigm. Finally, it is
suggested that as neither of these two paradigms is optimal, the direct-interaction paradigm as originally introduced by
Schwarzschild deserves further consideration.
A survey of the historically most widely considered 'paradigms' for the electromagnetic interaction is presented along with the conflicts or defects that each exhibited. In particular, problems derived from the concept of the 'photon' and Quantum Electrodynamics are emphasized. It is argued that a from of direct interaction on the light cone may be the optimum paradigm for this interaction.