High-order harmonic generation (HHG) has been recently proven to produce harmonic vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) region from the nonlinear up-conversion of infrared vortex beams. In this work we present two methods to control and extend the OAM content of the harmonic vortices. First, we show that when a driver combination of different vortex modes is used, HHG leads to the production of harmonic vortices with a broad OAM content due to its nonperturbative nature. Second, we show that harmonic vortices with two discrete OAM contributions –so called fractional OAM modes– are generated when HHG is driven by conical refraction beams. Our work offers the possibility of generating tunable OAM beams in the XUV regime, potentially extensible to the soft x rays, overcoming the state of the art limitations for the generation of OAM beams far from the visible domain.
We propose two different in-line optical schemes for the implementation of Biaxial Crystal (BC) based polarimeters. Unlike already existing BC polarimeters prototypes, our proposed architectures only require of a single BC and only one CCD camera, this leading to more feasible and cheaper prototypes. The first scheme is restricted to linear metrology and we provide its interest to be applied under low-intensity conditions. The second architecture is suitable for complete polarimetry, this being achieved by including an optical module to properly split and steer the input light. The BC polarimeters were implemented and tested by measuring different known input polarizations and we obtained excellent results in terms of accuracy and repeatability.
Laser beams with cone-refracted output from the plane mirror is demonstrated for the first time in lasers based on intracavity conical refraction (CR) phenomenon. Transverse profile of such lasers comprises a crescent ring of CR-like distribution, where any opposite points are of orthogonal linear polarizations. We confirm the existence of such mode of CR lasers by two observations. First, cascaded CR in reflection geometry has been demonstrated for first time and it provides experimental prove that a light beam passed along optic axis of a biaxial crystal, reflected back from a plane mirror and passed again through the crystal is restored. Second, CR cavity mode with CR-like pattern through the plane mirror is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated for the first time.
Conical refraction (CR) is proposed to increase the channel capacity for free space optical communication applications.
We present the first investigations of cascaded CR with a linearly polarized input beam and experimentally prove that
two oppositely oriented consecutive identical biaxial crystals perform a forward-backward transformation of the incident
light beam. This forward-backward transformation is reported for different input beams with Gaussian, elliptical and
angularly modulated transverse intensity profiles and is the basis for our novel proposal on multiplexing and
demultiplexing of optical beams. We present experimental proof of usefulness and perspective of the CR multiplexing
technique by increasing in one order of magnitude the channel capacity at optical frequencies. The technique is
applicable to any wavelength in optical and telecommunication bands. It can be also properly upgraded with the WDM