Ultrashort pulse laser ablation has become an important tool for material processing. Adding liquids to the process can be beneficial for a reduced debris and heat affected zone width. Another application is the production of ligand-free nanoparticles. By measuring the ablation rate of iron for femtosecond pulsed laser ablation in different solvents and solvent-mixtures, the influence of the solvent properties on the ablation process is studied. The ablation efficiency is quantified by measuring the ablation rate in dependency of the fluence from 0.05 J/cm<sup>2</sup> up to 5 J/cm<sup>2</sup> in water-ethanol and water-acetone mixtures which are varied in 25 % steps. The ablation rate is significantly influenced by the solvent-mixtures.
Laser pulses in the picosecond and femtosecond regime enable nearly non-thermal material processing where heat effects like molten pools and thermal tensions are often significantly reduced. However, a residual amount of laser energy transforms into heat. As a consequence cumulative multiple shot processing leads to heat accumulation and subsequently lower manufacturing accuracy. To increase the processing throughput without losing quality, it is important to optimize the laser pulse properties and the ablation strategy to further reduce thermal effects. Due to a low heat capacity in small structures, it is necessary to consider the substrate dimensions while performing micro- and nanoprocessing. In contrast to bulk material ablation, the heat dissipation is confined by the small heat capacity of microstructures. Especially for complex structures, it is time-consuming to find efficient processing parameters manually. For this reason, an in-situ evaluation system based on electrical resistivity measurements for on-line control of the ablation process was developed to optimize the laser parameters. In the work presented, the efficiency of 35 femtosecond pulsed laser ablation was evaluated on copper structures in the micrometer range. Furthermore, these results have been compared and evaluated with surface profiles measured by white-light interferometry.