Compression is a typical stage in processing of remote sensing images. Here we consider lossy compression of images that contain noise. Then, there are, at least, two approaches – to compress images without pre-filtering and with prefiltering. The second approach is shown to have some advantages but only under certain conditions. Several metrics characterizing quality of compressed images are used. Main conclusions are in good agreement in cases of using different metrics. Recommendations concerning parameter selection for lossy compression with pre-filtering are given.
We address lossy compression of noisy remote sensing images, where the noise is supposed to be spatially uncorrelated (white), additive originally or after a proper variance-stabilizing transformation (VST). In such situations, the so-called optimal operation point (OOP) might exist. The OOP is associated with the parameter that controls compression (e.g., quantization step) for which the compressed image is the closest to the noise-free image according to a certain criterion and is closer than the original noisy image. Lossy compression in the neighborhood of OOP, if it exists, relates to an essential noise filtering effect and some distortions. Then such lossy compression (in the neighborhood of OOP) becomes expedient. However, it may be that OOP does not exist for a given image and the observed noise intensity. In such a situation, it can be reasonable to carry out a more “careful” image compression (with a lower compression ratio). Also, it is expedient to predict the existence of OOP and the compression parameters at this point in advance in order to perform adaptive and automated compression. The OOP existence that can be predicted for some coders based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is shown. The proposed prediction procedure is simple and fast. It presumes the calculation of DCT coefficient statistics in nonoverlapping 8×8 pixel blocks for a given image and uses an approximating curve obtained in advance. It is shown that it is possible to predict values for both conventional metrics, such as mean square error or peak-signal-to-noise ratio, and some visual quality metrics for the coder parameters that correspond to a possible OOP. The designed prediction procedure is tested on Hyperion and AVIRIS hyperspectral remote sensing data.
This paper deals with lossy compression of images corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. For such images, compression can be characterized by existence of optimal operation point (OOP). In OOP, MSE or other metric derived between compressed and noise-free image might have optimum, i.e., maximal noise removal effect takes place. If OOP exists, then it is reasonable to compress an image in its neighbourhood. If no, more “careful” compression is reasonable. In this paper, we demonstrate that existence of OOP can be predicted based on very simple and fast analysis of discrete cosine transform (DCT) statistics in 8x8 blocks. Moreover, OOP can be predicted not only for conventional metrics as MSE or PSNR but also for visual quality metrics. Such prediction can be useful in automatic compression of multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing images.
A problem of lossy compression of hyperspectral images is considered. A specific aspect is that we assume a signal-dependent model of noise for data acquired by new generation sensors. Moreover, a signal-dependent component of the noise is assumed dominant compared to a signal-independent noise component. Sub-band (component-wise) lossy compression is studied first, and it is demonstrated that optimal operation point (OOP) can exist. For such OOP, the mean square error between compressed and noise-free images attains global or, at least, local minimum, i.e., a good effect of noise removal (filtering) is reached. In practice, we show how compression in the neighborhood of OOP can be carried out, when a noise-free image is not available. Two approaches for reaching this goal are studied. First, lossy compression directly applied to the original data is considered. According to another approach, lossy compression is applied to images after direct variance stabilizing transform (VST) with properly adjusted parameters. Inverse VST has to be performed only after data decompression. It is shown that the second approach has certain advantages. One of them is that the quantization step for a coder can be set the same for all sub-band images. This offers favorable prerequisites for applying three-dimensional (3-D) methods of lossy compression for sub-band images combined into groups after VST. Two approaches to 3-D compression, based on the discrete cosine transform, are proposed and studied. A first approach presumes obtaining the reference and “difference” images for each group. A second performs compression directly for sub-images in a group. We show that it is a good choice to have 16 sub-images in each group. The abovementioned approaches are tested for Hyperion hyperspectral data. It is demonstrated that the compression ratio of about 15–20 can be provided for hyperspectral image compression in the neighborhood of OOP for 3-D coders, which is sufficiently larger than for component-wise compression and lossless coding.
This paper addresses lossy compression of hyperspectral images acquired by sensors of new generation for which signaldependent
component of the noise is prevailing compared to the noise-independent component. First, for sub-band
(component-wise) compression, it is shown that there can exist an optimal operation point (OOP) for which MSE between
compressed and noise-free image is minimal, i.e., maximal noise filtering effect is observed. This OOP can be observed for
two approaches to lossy compression where the first one presumes direct application of a coder to original data and the
second approach deals with applying direct and inverse variance stabilizing transform (VST). Second, it is demonstrated
that the second approach is preferable since it usually provides slightly smaller MSE and slightly larger compression ratio
(CR) in OOP. One more advantage of the second approach is that the coder parameter that controls CR can be set fixed for
all sub-band images. Moreover, CR can be considerably (approximately twice) increased if sub-band images after VST are
grouped and lossy compression is applied to a first sub-band image in a group and to “difference” images obtained for this
group. The proposed approach is tested for Hyperion hyperspectral images and shown to provide CR about 15 for data
compression in the neighborhood of OOP.