A stable far-field and single-mode performance is of great interest for many applications in sensing or communications.
In this contribution an analysis of the far-field stability versus current and temperature is performed
for a long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) emitting around 1310 nm. Furthermore,
the single-mode stability is investigated by means of a technology computer aided design (TCAD) tool.
The electro-opto-thermal multi-dimensional simulations are fully-coupled and use microscopic models. The optical
modes are obtained by solving the vectorial Helmholtz equation, using a finite element approach. The
impact of temperature, free carrier absorption and gain on the refractive index is accounted for. The far-field is
calculated using Green's functions.
The investigated VCSEL features an InP-based cavity with multiple quantum wells and a tunnel junction as well
as wafer-fused AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors.
The comparison of simulated and measured L-I, V-I characteristics and far-field as well as the wavelength-shift
show good agreement for different ambient temperatures as well as driving current values. The simulations reveal
the impact of temperature, gain and carrier effects on the far-field. The design of optical guiding structures
(such as oxides or tunnel junctions) and its impact on the far-field behaviour over ambient temperature and bias
current is discussed.
We present the static and dynamic simulation of a long-wavelength
vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at around
1310 nm. The device consists of AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) which are wafer-fused to both sides of the InP-based cavity with InAlGaAs quantum wells. A tunnel junction is used for current injection into the active region. The structure is simulated with a modified version of the commercial device simulator Synopsys Sentaurus Device. The fully-coupled two-dimensional electro-opto-thermal simulations use a microscopic physics-based model. Carrier transport is described by the continuity and Poisson equations and self-heating effects are accounted for by a thermodynamic equation. To obtain the opticalmodes, the wave equation is solved using a finite element approach. The optical gain model includes many-body effects. The equations are solved self-consistently. Calibrations of static (L-I, V-I curves) and dynamic characteristics (RIN) show good agreement with measurements at different temperatures. On this basis, the simulations reveal the critical factors that determine the modulation-current efficiency factor (MCEF) of the device.