When a zoom lens views a tilted finite conjugate object, its image plane is both tilted and distorted depending on magnification. Our camera image plane moves with six degrees of freedom; only one moving doublet lens is required to change magnification. Two lens design models were analyzed. The first required the optical and mechanical axes to be collinear, resulting in a tilted stop. The second allowed the optical axis to be tilted from the lens mechanical axis with an untilted stop moving along the mechanical axis. Both designs produced useful zoom lenses with excellent resolution for a distorted image. For both lens designs, the stop is anchored to the moving doublet and its diameter is unchanged throughout magnification changes. This unusual outcome allows the light level at each camera pixel to remain constant, independent of magnification. As-built tolerance analysis is used to compare both optical models. The design application is for proton radiography. At the end of an accelerator, protons exit an aluminum vacuum window producing a shadowgraph image onto an LYSO (lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) scintillator. The 5″ square scintillator emission reflects off a pellicle and is collected by the zoom lenses located 24″ away. Four zoom lenses will view the same pellicle at different alpha and beta angles. Blue emission from the scintillator is viewed at an alpha angle of –14° or –23° and beta angles of ±9° or ±25°. The pellicle directs the light backwards to a zone where adequate shielding of the cameras can be achieved against radiation scattered from the aluminum window.
An instrument has been developed to acquire time-resolved tomographic data from the electron beam at the DARHT [Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument contains four optical lines of sight that view a single tilted object. The lens design optically integrates along one optical axis for each line of sight. These images are relayed via fiber optic arrays to streak cameras, and the recorded streaks are used to reconstruct the original two-dimensional data. Installation of this instrument into the facility requires automation of both the optomechanical adjustments and calibration of the instrument in a constrained space. Additional design considerations include compound tilts on the object and image planes.
It is well known that the attenuation length of radiation in any dense material increases with radiation energy. We propose a novel method of measuring x-ray and gamma spectra based on this principle. The multispectral x-ray and gamma spectrometer concept employs a scintillating material and optical camera system coupled via optical fibers. The optical fibers are placed sequentially at increasing depth with respect to the radiation path along the length of the scintillating material. Light generated by the interaction of radiation with the scintillating material is transported to the camera for recording and subsequent analysis. The proposed system will be used to determine the spectrum of incident radiation by deconvolving the radiation spectrum from the optical intensity (as a function of depth) of the recorded signals.