Explosion of data and mass availability of Internet connections around the globe had created huge bandwidth requirements for bandwidth hungry applications. Despite the technological advances in the core and their ability to transport, still much work has to be done in the access networks in order to be able to let the broadband traffic be transmitted transparently. Current solutions for access networks do not provide a concrete solution for the famous last mile problem. In this review we will investigate optical access networks as viable solutions to the ongoing problems in the access networks. Further we will study physical and technological limitations with the current state-of-the-art optical technology. We will address the optical access networks promises in responding to these shortcomings. We will thoroughly study passive optical networks (PONs), reviewing different type of PONs considering their benefits and limitations. We will conclude our study with comparison of these current solutions.
In this paper we consider service differentiation in wireless networks using pricing policy. The pricing methodology examined is based on "auctioning" pricing. In the present work, it is applied on IEEE 802.11-based wireless networks. The uplink traffic in an IEEE 802.11 wireless network operating in the PCF mode is considered to be "thin" as the mobile users in the network are subject to power limitations and the biggest volume of traffic occurs on the downlink - from the Base Station to the mobile users. The Base station advertises different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) and the Mobile Users are competing for channel resources by bid requests. Based on the variability of the wireless channel, the amount of the available bandwidth shared between the mobile users changes, the price of the QoS changes as well and the users might change the bids they are offering or change the QoS they request from the Base Station. In the present bidding and pricing scheme, an analytical model for price determination is provided and the results of OPNET based simulations for prove of concept are presented.