We investigate the potential of Raman microspectroscopy (RMS) for automated evaluation of excised skin tissue during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The main aim is to develop an automated method for imaging and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) regions. Selected Raman bands responsible for the largest spectral differences between BCC and normal skin regions and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are used to build a multivariate supervised classification model. The model is based on 329 Raman spectra measured on skin tissue obtained from 20 patients. BCC is discriminated from healthy tissue with 90±9% sensitivity and 85±9% specificity in a 70% to 30% split cross-validation algorithm. This multivariate model is then applied on tissue sections from new patients to image tumor regions. The RMS images show excellent correlation with the gold standard of histopathology sections, BCC being detected in all positive sections. We demonstrate the potential of RMS as an automated objective method for tumor evaluation during MMS. The replacement of current histopathology during MMS by a "generalization" of the proposed technique may improve the feasibility and efficacy of MMS, leading to a wider use according to clinical need.
To ensure the sustainability of tissue engineered products there is a need to consider the engineering and manufacturing
issues related to them particularly for the purposes of process optimization and product quality assurance. This work
describes the application of Raman spectroscopy for in process monitoring of a skin substitute and rotating orthogonal
polarization imaging to track collagen alignment in a tissue engineered tendon. The skin substitute studied is produced
from culturing fibroblasts in a fibrin matrix. Throughout the production process the fibroblasts secrete extracellular
matrix and in doing so deposit collagen in the matrix. Key to optimization of the skin substitute production process is
development of strategies to track the collagen and fibrin content. The work presented here discusses the feasibility of
Raman spectroscopy to resolve fibrin and collagen components in the skin substitutes. Collagen alignment is also
important in the engineering of many tissues, in particular tendons. Thus, this work will also investigate the ability of
rotating orthogonal polarization imaging to track collagen alignment in a tissue engineered tendon.