At SPIE 2013 in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography an invited paper was published titled “In-line E-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: the end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection”. Three years have passed and numerous developments have occurred as predicted in this paper. The development of E-beam tools that can concurrently handle metrology and defect applications is one of the primary developments. In this paper, the capabilities of these new E-beam tools and their current use cases will be discussed in the areas of Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU), In-die overlay, Hot spot and Physical defect inspection. Emphasis will be placed on use cases where “massive” CDU data is collected in order to increase yield learning for manufacturing (14nm) and decrease cycles of learning for development (7nm). Additionally, some of the other subject material from the previous publication will also be discussed such as the current state of E-beam critical dimension image fidelity and physical defect detection capabilities. Lastly, future directions and opportunities for In-line E-beam including Multi-beam and/or Multi-column E-beam will be discussed.