Light fluence inside turbid media can be experimentally mapped by measuring ultrasonically modulated light (Acousto-optics). To demonstrate the feasibility of fluence corrected Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, we have realized a tri-modality (i.e. photoacoustic, acousto-optic and ultrasound) tomographic small animal imaging system. Wherein PA imaging provides high resolution map of absorbed optical energy density, Acousto-optics yields the fluence distribution map in the corresponding PA imaging plane and Ultrasound provides morphological information. Further, normalization of the PA image with the acousto-optically measured fluence map results in an image that directly represents the optical absorption.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is commonly found overexpressed in human cancers, among which breast cancers, resulting in a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Identification of HER2-expression is clinically relevant, because cancers overexpressing this marker are amenable to HER2-directed therapies, among which antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Here, we investigate the feasibility and advantage of acousto-optically assisted fluence compensated PA imaging over PA imaging alone in visualizing and quantifying HER2 expression. For this experiment, nude mice were xenografted with human breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474 (both HER2 overexpressing), as well as HER2-negative MDA-MB-231. To visualize HER2 expression in these mice, HER2 monoclonal antibody pertuzumab (Perjeta®, Roche), was conjugated to near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW (800CW, LICOR Biosciences) at a ratio of 1∶2 antibody to 800CW. When xenograft tumors measured ≥ 100 mm3, mice received 100 µg 800CW-pertuzumab intravenously. Three days post injection, mice were scanned for fluorescence signal with an IVIS scanner. After fluorescence scans, mice were euthanized and imaged in our PA tomographic imaging system.
This article [J. Biomed. Opt.. 19, (6 ), 066002 (2014)] was originally published online on 2 June 2014 with a typo in the author list. The authors are correct as listed above. This article was corrected online on 6 June 2014. It appears correctly in print.
Knowledge of the local optical fluence in biological tissue is of fundamental importance for biomedical optical techniques to achieve quantification. We report a method to noninvasively measure the local optical fluence in optically inhomogeneous scattering media. The concept is based on two aspects: the local tagging of light using ultrasonic modulation and the photon path reversibility principle. Our method has advantages over known computational-based fluence mapping techniques, for its purely experimental nature and without the requirement of prior knowledge of the optical properties of the medium. We provide a theoretical formalism and validation of the method with experiments in tissue-like phantoms. Further, we combine our method with photoacoustic imaging and compensate the photoacoustic signals for fluence variations in optically inhomogeneous media.
Optical excitation based imaging modalities, with aim to image structures deep inside the scattering medium, suffer from
quantification problem. We propose a methodology to solve the problem of non-invasively mapping the fluence in
optically heterogeneous medium without the need of prior knowledge of its optical properties. We present a theoretical
model of our concept and provide proof of principle with Monte Carlo simulations. Simulation results show that it is
possible to measure the local light fluence in highly scattering medium in absolute terms. Furthermore, we performed an
experiment to validate the concept as a strategy to measure local fluence in relative manners. We used reflection mode
acousto optics (AO) in our experiment, and showed that with this method we can measure local light fluence (in relative
term) in highly scattering medium.