The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(ALMA) Band 1 receiver covers the 35-50 GHz frequency band. Development of prototype receivers, including the key components and subsystems has been completed and two sets of prototype receivers were fully tested. We will provide an overview of the ALMA Band 1 science goals, and its requirements and design for use on the ALMA. The receiver development status will also be discussed and the infrastructure, integration, evaluation of fully-assembled band 1 receiver system will be covered. Finally, a discussion of the technical and management challenges encountered will be presented.
ALMA is the largest radio astronomical facility in the world providing high sensitivity between 35 and 950 GHz,
divided in 10 bands with fractional bandwidths between 19 and 36%. Having a lifespan of at least 30 years, ALMA
carries out a permanent upgrading plan which, for the receivers, is focused on achieving better sensitivity and larger
bandwidths. As result, an international consortium works on demonstrating a prototype receiver covering currents Bands
2 and 3 (67 to 116 GHz) which corresponds to a fractional bandwidth of 54%. Here we present the preliminary design,
implementation and characterization of suitable refractive optics. Results indicate an excellent performance in good
agreement with simulations.
The ALMA Band-1 receiver front-end prototype cold and warm cartridge assemblies, including the system and key
components for ALMA Band-1 receivers have been developed and two sets of prototype cartridge were fully tested. The
measured aperture efficiency for the cold receiver is above the 80% specification except for a few frequency points.
Based on the cryogenically cooled broadband low-noise amplifiers provided by NRAO, the receiver noise temperature
can be as low as 15 – 32K for pol-0 and 17 – 30K for pol-1. Other key testing items are also measured. The receiver
beam pattern is measured, the results is well fit to the simulation and design. The pointing error extracted from the
measured beam pattern indicates the error is 0.1 degree along azimuth and 0.15 degree along elevation, which is well fit
to the specification (smaller than 0.4 degree). The equivalent hot load temperature for 5% gain compression is 492 -
4583K, which well fit to the specification of 5% with 373K input thermal load. The image band suppression is higher
than 30 dB typically and the worst case is higher than 20 dB for 34GHz RF signal and 38GHz LO signal, which is all
higher than 7 dB required specification. The cross talk between orthogonal polarization is smaller than -85 dB based on
present prototype LO. The amplitude stability is below 2.0 x 10-7 , which is fit to the specification of 4.0 x 10-7 for
timescales in the range of 0.05 s ≤ T ≤ 100 s. The signal path phase stability measured is smaller than 5 fs, which is
smaller than 22 fs for Long term (delay drift) 20 s ≤ T < 300 sec. The IF output phase variation is smaller than 3.5° rms
typically, and the specification is less than 4.5° rms. The measured IF output power level is -28 to -30.5 dBm with 300K
input load. The measured IF output power flatness is less than 5.6 dB for 2GHz window, and 1.3dB for 31MHz window.
The first batch of prototype cartridges will be installed on site for further commissioning on July of 2017.
This paper summarizes the performance of all the 73 ALMA band 10 cartridges in terms of noise performance and/or optical efficiencies compared to the required ALMA specifications. In particular, the measured optical performance is compared with the results of novel statistical Monte Carlo analyses carried out before receiver production. Some of the technical difficulties encountered during production are briefly described. Finally, some of the first light results of the first receivers used in Chile are presented.