Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests are often used to help diagnose coronary heart disease (CAD). The tests usually involve applying stress, such as hard physical exercise together with administration of vasodilators, to the patients. To date, many of these tests use non-selective A<sub>2A</sub> adenosine receptor agonists which, however, can be associated with highly undesirable and life-threatening side effects such as chest pain, dyspnea, severe bronchoconstriction and atrioventricular conduction anomalies. Regadenoson is a relatively new, highly selective A<sub>2A</sub> adenosine receptor agonist, suitable for use in MPI tests which exhibits far fewer adverse side effects and, unlike others testing agents, can be used without the necessity of excessive concomitant exercise. Also, the dose of regadenoson required is not dependent upon patient weight or renal impairment, and it can be rapidly administered by i.v. Injection. Regadenoson use in MPI testing thus has the potential as a simplified, relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective method for helping diagnose CAD. The present study was designed to review several articles on the safety, efficacy, and suitability of regadenoson in MPI testing for CAD. Overall, the combined studies demonstrated that use of regadenoson in conjunction with low-level exercise in MPI is a highly efficient and relatively safe test for CAD, especially for more severe health-compromised patients.
Photobiomodulation therapy uses light from a laser and is, therefore, a non-invasive, non-thermal treatment that is effective in reducing chronic pain and inflammation, stimulating wound healing and tissue regeneration. Due to its accessibility and ease of use, it is also being explored as an alternative to lipoplasty for fat removal. This review covers literature focusing on the applications of photobiomodulation therapy, with particular emphasis on the safety and efficacy of this therapy on fat loss. Based on the studies reported, photobiomodulation therapy is a safe technique that showed promising results in reducing the circumference of treated body parts. Also, photobiomodulation therapy is particularly effective when used in combination with exercise and physical therapy. The mechanism of action of how photobiomodulation therapy removes fat from the cells is controversial and requires further investigation. Very little scientific indication endures in support of the claims that infrared light, whether dispensed by laser, lamp, or while in a body wrap, can assist people to lose extra weight or shape their physique. Moreover, additional studies demonstrating the efficacy of photo modulation therapy in larger groups would be helpful in establishing this technique for regular clinical use.
Introduction: Pressure sores (decubitus ulcer) are a serious problem in health care management, especially for middleaged
to older people who are bed-ridden. Although preventative measures are used, the condition remains common and
development of novel, improved treatment methods are desirable. This article reviews the application of laser-based
methods, previously shown to be effective in accelerating wound-healing in animal models and in the treatment of
decubitus ulcers in humans.
Methods: About 23 scientific articles on the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in animals and
humans from 2000-2014 were reviewed. Additionally, results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were
reviewed, and compared with other treatment methods available.
Results: Whilst carefully controlled, laboratory-based animal studies indicated that LLLT can reduce healing time for
several types of injuries, however similar studies in humans failed to demonstrate consistent beneficial effects in the
clinical setting. An acceleration of decubitus ulcer healing has been occasionally found, although limited to certain
wavelengths and sometimes only in combination with other types of therapies. Indeed, some of the clinical articles
indicated that certain laser wavelengths can have detrimental effects on time of healing.
Conclusions: To date, there remains no convincing evidence that LLLT has consistent medical benefit in treating
decubitus ulcers. Caution should be applied when considering LLLT since only certain wavelengths utilized have
shown beneficial effects. It is concluded that, more RCTs are needed since, there is no clinical justification for LLLT,
alone or in combination with other methods, in treating decubitus ulcers.