Parallel phase shift interferometric detection systems were developed using polarized interferometry, three detectors and multiple wavelengths. In phase shift interferometry (PSI) several phase shifted interference images are usually acquired in a sequence and are algebraically combined to extract the phase information. However, phase imaging is limited both by the 2π phase modulo limiting the ability to map structures with heights only up to half the source's wavelength i.e. several hundreds of nm, and also by error induced by the movements of the sample between the acquisitions of phase shifted interference images. Several approaches for dealing with these limitations have been developed that provided only a limited solution, e.g. using a beat wavelength interferogram by a two wavelength illumination but that is more sensitive to phase noise and thus less accurate and parallel PSI in which all phase shifted images are acquired simultaneously but that does not resolve the height limitation. We have developed a combined and improved technique for parallel PSI and three wavelength illumination enabling overcoming both limitations without elevating phase noise sensitivity. Several bench prototypes were built: some allowing video rate 3D imaging of moving samples such as biological live samples or high throughput scanning of metrology samples with nm scale resolution, and others allowing single point very high speed axial motion tracking and vibrometry with sub-nm scale resolution and max step height of few tens of µm.
1. Michael Ney, Avner Safrani, Ibrahim Abdulhalim, Instantaneous high-resolution focus tracking and a vibrometery system using parallel phase shift interferometry, J. Opt. A (Letters) 18, 09LT05 (5pp) (2016).
2. Michael Ney, Avner Safrani, Ibrahim Abdulhalim, Three wavelengths parallel phase-shift interferometry for real-time focus tracking and vibration measurement, Optics Letter 42, 719-22 (2017).
3. Avner Safrani and Ibrahim Abdulhalim, High speed 3D imaging using two wavelengths parallel phase shift interferometry, Optics Letters 40, 4651-4 (2015).
4. Avner Safrani and Ibrahim Abdulhalim, Full field parallel interferometry coherence probe microscope for high speed optical metrology, Appl. Opt. 54, 5083-87 (2015).
5. Avner Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, Real Time, Phase Shift, Interference Microscopy, Optics Letters 39, 5220-23 (2014).
A method and system for imaging objects based on sensing their dielectric permittivity at low frequencies of few kHz are presented. The system is composed of three regions: Liquid Crystal (LC) layer, buffer layer and a cavity in which the analyzed samples are inserted. When a voltage is applied, it falls partially on the LC causing its molecules to tilt. The amount and distribution of the voltage depend on the dielectric permittivity of the analyzed samples. The permittivity distribution is imaged by reading the retardation changes in the LC with visible light in reflection and transmission modes. The resolution limit of the system is predicted theoretically using rigorous simulation showing possible resolution down to few tens of microns.