Oxidative stress has become an exciting area of schizophrenia (SCZ) research, and provides ample opportunities and hope for a better understanding of its pathophysiology, which may lead to new treatment strategies. The first objective of the present study was to analyze the oxidative stress markers in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment with Levomepromazine. The second objective was to analyze the deficiency of amino acids marker in breath samples of patients with SCZ before and after the treatment. Exhaled breath was collected from 15 SCZ patients and 19 healthy controls; subsequently, CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to assess the exhaled breath compounds of the study subjects. One of the main breath biomarkers of the oxidative stress is ethylene, while one of the main breath biomarkers of the amino acids deficiency is ammonia. The breath biomarkers in the exhalation of SCZ patients exhibited significant differences from the breath biomarkers in the exhalation of healthy controls. Analysis of breath ethylene and breath ammonia provides a related model of SCZ exhalation that could represent an effective and convenient screening method for this intellectual disability.
A compact pulsed electron beam source based on a channel-spark discharge was studied with the aim to find the optimum operating conditions for an efficient ablation of ferroelectric materials for thin-film deposition. The ablation plasma was studied by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The temporal evolution of the spectral lines of target material and working gas was monitored. In the present discharge configuration a long lasting plasma is characteristic, as proved by the temporal evolution of excited atoms and ions.